Tag Archive: Vanuatu


Earth Watch Report Banner photo FSPEarthWatchReport900x228Blogger_zps53ef6af0.jpg

……………………………………………………………………………….

 

Globe with Earthquake Location

M7.3 – VANUATU

Preliminary Earthquake Report
Magnitude 7.3
Date-Time
  • 20 Oct 2015 21:52:02 UTC
  • 21 Oct 2015 08:52:02 near epicenter
  • 20 Oct 2015 15:52:02 standard time in your timezone
Location 14.861S 167.307E
Depth 131 km
Distances
  • 34 km (21 mi) NE of Port-Olry, Vanuatu
  • 75 km (46 mi) NNE of Luganville, Vanuatu
  • 335 km (207 mi) NNW of Port-Vila, Vanuatu
  • 670 km (415 mi) N of We, New Caledonia
  • 810 km (502 mi) N of Paita, New Caledonia
Location Uncertainty Horizontal: 7.6 km; Vertical 5.6 km
Parameters Nph = 111; Dmin = 66.0 km; Rmss = 0.85 seconds; Gp = 32°
Version =
Event ID us 10003q0q

……….

2 earthquakes in map area

  1. M 4.7 – 48km ENE of Port-Olry, Vanuatu

    2015-10-20 22:31:09 UTC 123.1 km

  2. M 7.1 – 35km NE of Port-Olry, Vanuatu

    2015-10-20 21:52:02 UTC 127.0 km

……….

……….

Current date and time is: Oct 20, 2015 23:45 UTC

No Tsunami Warnings, Advisories or Watches are in effect
Tsunami Alerts issued by NWS in the past 7 days
Time (UTC)
Alert Region ( ? )
Alert Type ( ? )
Magnitude
Details
Issuing Office
Oct 20, 2015 21:59
Alaska/BC/US West Coast
Public Information
7.3
Oct 20, 2015 21:58
Hawaii
Information
7.3
Oct 20, 2015 21:57
Pacific Ocean
Information
7.3
Oct 16, 2015 18:09
Alaska/BC/US West Coast
Information
4.0

………..

Earth Watch Report  –  Earthquakes

Instrumental Intensity

ShakeMap Intensity Image

…..

M 6.6 – 37km W of Sola, Vanuatu

2014-01-01 16:03:30 UTC

Earthquake location 13.873°S, 167.202°E

Event Time

  1. 2014-01-01 16:03:30 UTC
  2. 2014-01-02 03:03:30 UTC+11:00 at epicenter
  3. 2014-01-01 10:03:30 UTC-06:00 system time

Location

13.873°S 167.202°E depth=196.2km (121.9mi)

Nearby Cities

  1. 37km (23mi) W of Sola, Vanuatu
  2. 183km (114mi) N of Luganville, Vanuatu
  3. 443km (275mi) NNW of Port-Vila, Vanuatu
  4. 779km (484mi) N of We, New Caledonia
  5. 918km (570mi) N of Paita, New Caledonia

…..

Tectonic Summary

Seismotectonics of the Eastern Margin of the Australia Plate

The eastern margin of the Australia plate is one of the most sesimically active areas of the world due to high rates of convergence between the Australia and Pacific plates. In the region of New Zealand, the 3000 km long Australia-Pacific plate boundary extends from south of Macquarie Island to the southern Kermadec Island chain. It includes an oceanic transform (the Macquarie Ridge), two oppositely verging subduction zones (Puysegur and Hikurangi), and a transpressive continental transform, the Alpine Fault through South Island, New Zealand.

Since 1900 there have been 15 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded near New Zealand. Nine of these, and the four largest, occurred along or near the Macquarie Ridge, including the 1989 M8.2 event on the ridge itself, and the 2004 M8.1 event 200 km to the west of the plate boundary, reflecting intraplate deformation. The largest recorded earthquake in New Zealand itself was the 1931 M7.8 Hawke’s Bay earthquake, which killed 256 people. The last M7.5+ earthquake along the Alpine Fault was 170 years ago; studies of the faults’ strain accumulation suggest that similar events are likely to occur again.

North of New Zealand, the Australia-Pacific boundary stretches east of Tonga and Fiji to 250 km south of Samoa. For 2,200 km the trench is approximately linear, and includes two segments where old (>120 Myr) Pacific oceanic lithosphere rapidly subducts westward (Kermadec and Tonga). At the northern end of the Tonga trench, the boundary curves sharply westward and changes along a 700 km-long segment from trench-normal subduction, to oblique subduction, to a left lateral transform-like structure.

Australia-Pacific convergence rates increase northward from 60 mm/yr at the southern Kermadec trench to 90 mm/yr at the northern Tonga trench; however, significant back arc extension (or equivalently, slab rollback) causes the consumption rate of subducting Pacific lithosphere to be much faster. The spreading rate in the Havre trough, west of the Kermadec trench, increases northward from 8 to 20 mm/yr. The southern tip of this spreading center is propagating into the North Island of New Zealand, rifting it apart. In the southern Lau Basin, west of the Tonga trench, the spreading rate increases northward from 60 to 90 mm/yr, and in the northern Lau Basin, multiple spreading centers result in an extension rate as high as 160 mm/yr. The overall subduction velocity of the Pacific plate is the vector sum of Australia-Pacific velocity and back arc spreading velocity: thus it increases northward along the Kermadec trench from 70 to 100 mm/yr, and along the Tonga trench from 150 to 240 mm/yr.

The Kermadec-Tonga subduction zone generates many large earthquakes on the interface between the descending Pacific and overriding Australia plates, within the two plates themselves and, less frequently, near the outer rise of the Pacific plate east of the trench. Since 1900, 40 M7.5+ earthquakes have been recorded, mostly north of 30°S. However, it is unclear whether any of the few historic M8+ events that have occurred close to the plate boundary were underthrusting events on the plate interface, or were intraplate earthquakes. On September 29, 2009, one of the largest normal fault (outer rise) earthquakes ever recorded (M8.1) occurred south of Samoa, 40 km east of the Tonga trench, generating a tsunami that killed at least 180 people.

Across the North Fiji Basin and to the west of the Vanuatu Islands, the Australia plate again subducts eastwards beneath the Pacific, at the North New Hebrides trench. At the southern end of this trench, east of the Loyalty Islands, the plate boundary curves east into an oceanic transform-like structure analogous to the one north of Tonga.

Australia-Pacific convergence rates increase northward from 80 to 90 mm/yr along the North New Hebrides trench, but the Australia plate consumption rate is increased by extension in the back arc and in the North Fiji Basin. Back arc spreading occurs at a rate of 50 mm/yr along most of the subduction zone, except near ~15°S, where the D’Entrecasteaux ridge intersects the trench and causes localized compression of 50 mm/yr in the back arc. Therefore, the Australia plate subduction velocity ranges from 120 mm/yr at the southern end of the North New Hebrides trench, to 40 mm/yr at the D’Entrecasteaux ridge-trench intersection, to 170 mm/yr at the northern end of the trench.

Large earthquakes are common along the North New Hebrides trench and have mechanisms associated with subduction tectonics, though occasional strike slip earthquakes occur near the subduction of the D’Entrecasteaux ridge. Within the subduction zone 34 M7.5+ earthquakes have been recorded since 1900. On October 7, 2009, a large interplate thrust fault earthquake (M7.6) in the northern North New Hebrides subduction zone was followed 15 minutes later by an even larger interplate event (M7.8) 60 km to the north. It is likely that the first event triggered the second of the so-called earthquake “doublet”.

More information on regional seismicity and tectonics

 

…..

 

SHAKE AND BLOW

6.6 magnitude Pacific quake, no tsunami threat: US geologists


by Staff Writers
Washington (AFP) Jan 01, 2014

A powerful 6.6 magnitude earthquake struck Wednesday off the coast of Vanuatu in the South Pacific, but US geologists said it was too deep to cause a tsunami.

The US Geological Survey said the quake struck at 1603 GMT about 37 kilometers (23 miles) west of Sola, Vanuatu.

The National Tsunami Warning Center in Palmer, Alaska said that the New Year’s Day temblor, with a depth of 195 kilometers, was “located too deep within the earth” to generate a sizeable tidal wave.

A 5.1-magnitude quake hits eastern Japan: USGS
Tokyo (AFP) Dec 31, 2013 – A shallow 5.1-magnitude earthquake hit eastern Japan Tuesday, the US Geological Survey said, but there were no local reports of any damage.

The quake hit at 10:03 am (0103 GMT) in Ibaraki prefecture, 146 kilometres (91 miles) northeast of Tokyo, the agency said.

The tremor was 9.9 kilometres deep, the agency said.

Located roughly 80 kilometres southwest of the Fukushima nuclear plant, the quake was strong enough to gently rock high-rise buildings in the capital.

Japan Meteorological Agency earlier estimated the quake’s magnitude at 5.4.

It was followed eight minutes later by a very shallow 3.6-magnitude quake in the same area, according to the Japanese agency.

Tokyo Electric Power said the quakes did not affect the Fukushima plant, where crews are working through the holiday season to cool reactors crippled by the 2011 tsunami.

Enhanced by Zemanta

 

Earth Watch Report  –  Earthquake

 photo Vanuatu-50and48magEQsJune6th2013_zpsae1f7a53.jpg

….

M5.0 – 68km ENE of Norsup, Vanuatu

 2013-06-07 08:46:57 UTC

Earthquake location 15.754°S, 167.940°E

Event Time

  1. 2013-06-07 08:46:57 UTC
  2. 2013-06-07 19:46:57 UTC+11:00 at epicenter
  3. 2013-06-07 03:46:57 UTC-05:00 system time

Location

15.754°S 167.940°E depth=201.3km (125.1mi)

Nearby Cities

  1. 68km (42mi) ENE of Norsup, Vanuatu
  2. 86km (53mi) ESE of Luganville, Vanuatu
  3. 222km (138mi) N of Port-Vila, Vanuatu
  4. 575km (357mi) N of We, New Caledonia
  5. 725km (450mi) NNE of Dumbea, New Caledonia

….

M4.8 – 278km SW of Vaini, Tonga

2013-06-07 09:09:48 UTC

Earthquake location 22.944°S, 177.139°W

Event Time

  1. 2013-06-07 09:09:48 UTC
  2. 2013-06-06 21:09:48 UTC-12:00 at epicenter
  3. 2013-06-07 04:09:48 UTC-05:00 system time

Location

22.944°S 177.139°W depth=179.3km (111.4mi)

Nearby Cities

  1. 278km (173mi) SW of Vaini, Tonga
  2. 283km (176mi) SW of Nuku`alofa, Tonga
  3. 703km (437mi) SE of Suva, Fiji
  4. 804km (500mi) SE of Nadi, Fiji
  5. 809km (503mi) SSE of Lambasa, Fiji

….

Tectonic Summary

Seismotectonics of the Eastern Margin of the Australia Plate

The eastern margin of the Australia plate is one of the most sesimically active areas of the world due to high rates of convergence between the Australia and Pacific plates. In the region of New Zealand, the 3000 km long Australia-Pacific plate boundary extends from south of Macquarie Island to the southern Kermadec Island chain. It includes an oceanic transform (the Macquarie Ridge), two oppositely verging subduction zones (Puysegur and Hikurangi), and a transpressive continental transform, the Alpine Fault through South Island, New Zealand.

Since 1900 there have been 15 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded near New Zealand. Nine of these, and the four largest, occurred along or near the Macquarie Ridge, including the 1989 M8.2 event on the ridge itself, and the 2004 M8.1 event 200 km to the west of the plate boundary, reflecting intraplate deformation. The largest recorded earthquake in New Zealand itself was the 1931 M7.8 Hawke’s Bay earthquake, which killed 256 people. The last M7.5+ earthquake along the Alpine Fault was 170 years ago; studies of the faults’ strain accumulation suggest that similar events are likely to occur again.

North of New Zealand, the Australia-Pacific boundary stretches east of Tonga and Fiji to 250 km south of Samoa. For 2,200 km the trench is approximately linear, and includes two segments where old (>120 Myr) Pacific oceanic lithosphere rapidly subducts westward (Kermadec and Tonga). At the northern end of the Tonga trench, the boundary curves sharply westward and changes along a 700 km-long segment from trench-normal subduction, to oblique subduction, to a left lateral transform-like structure.

Australia-Pacific convergence rates increase northward from 60 mm/yr at the southern Kermadec trench to 90 mm/yr at the northern Tonga trench; however, significant back arc extension (or equivalently, slab rollback) causes the consumption rate of subducting Pacific lithosphere to be much faster. The spreading rate in the Havre trough, west of the Kermadec trench, increases northward from 8 to 20 mm/yr. The southern tip of this spreading center is propagating into the North Island of New Zealand, rifting it apart. In the southern Lau Basin, west of the Tonga trench, the spreading rate increases northward from 60 to 90 mm/yr, and in the northern Lau Basin, multiple spreading centers result in an extension rate as high as 160 mm/yr. The overall subduction velocity of the Pacific plate is the vector sum of Australia-Pacific velocity and back arc spreading velocity: thus it increases northward along the Kermadec trench from 70 to 100 mm/yr, and along the Tonga trench from 150 to 240 mm/yr.

The Kermadec-Tonga subduction zone generates many large earthquakes on the interface between the descending Pacific and overriding Australia plates, within the two plates themselves and, less frequently, near the outer rise of the Pacific plate east of the trench. Since 1900, 40 M7.5+ earthquakes have been recorded, mostly north of 30°S. However, it is unclear whether any of the few historic M8+ events that have occurred close to the plate boundary were underthrusting events on the plate interface, or were intraplate earthquakes. On September 29, 2009, one of the largest normal fault (outer rise) earthquakes ever recorded (M8.1) occurred south of Samoa, 40 km east of the Tonga trench, generating a tsunami that killed at least 180 people.

….

Earth Watch Report  –  Volcanic Activity

Fil:VAN 0516.JPG

Eruption of Yasur18. October 2006

Eget verk  –   Rolf Cosar

….

01.06.2013 Volcano Activity Vanuatu Tanna Island, [Mount Yasur Volcano] Damage level   Details

….

….

Volcano Activity in Vanuatu on Saturday, 01 June, 2013 at 09:27 (09:27 AM) UTC.

Description
Explosive activity at Vanuatu’s Mt Yasur volcano has increased in recent days. According to observations by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards department, the activity level of the volcano on Tanna island is still at alert level 2 but an increase to 3 in the near future is possible. The risk of volcanic projections near the volcano crater remains as thick steam and ash is being emitted from active vents, with ash fall in communities downwind. An increase in activity was noted in early April when bombs were ejected from the volcano to the parking area below the summit cone, and the activity status was raised from 1 to 2. It is recommended that all communities, visitors and travel agents take the current situation seriously.

….

….

Yasur volcano (Vanuatu): increased explosive activity

Wednesday May 29, 2013 15:32 PM | BY: T

Steam and ash plume from Yasur on 8 May 2013 and hazard map of Yasur volcano and explanation of status levels (Geohazards)

Steam and ash plume from Yasur on 8 May 2013 and hazard map of Yasur volcano and explanation of status levels (Geohazards)

Explosive (strombolian) activity level has been increasing recently, the latest bulletin of Geohazard today indicates. The alert level remains at 2, but an increase to 3 is possible in the near future.
Elevated risk of impacts remains near the volcano’s crater, as bombs have started to fall near and in the parking area. A thick steam and ash plume is being emitted from the active vents, and there is ash fall in communities downwind.
It is recommended that all communities, visitors and travel agents take the current situation seriously (= not approach the crater rim).

….

Earth Watch Report  –  Earthquakes

 photo SolomonIslands-2EQs48-57magMay15-172013_zps25afb8c0.jpg

….

M4.8 – 101km SW of Lata, Solomon Islands

 2013-05-15 23:01:16 UTC

Earthquake location 11.303°S, 165.115°E

Event Time

  1. 2013-05-15 23:01:16 UTC
  2. 2013-05-16 10:01:16 UTC+11:00 at epicenter
  3. 2013-05-15 18:01:16 UTC-05:00 system time

Location

11.303°S 165.115°E depth=7.3km (4.5mi)

Nearby Cities

  1. 101km (63mi) SW of Lata, Solomon Islands
  2. 518km (322mi) NNW of Luganville, Vanuatu
  3. 602km (374mi) ESE of Honiara, Solomon Islands
  4. 790km (491mi) NNW of Port-Vila, Vanuatu
  5. 1088km (676mi) NNW of We, New Caledonia

 

….

M5.7 – 91km WSW of Lata, Solomon Islands

 2013-05-17 06:43:16 UTC

Earthquake location 11.085°S, 165.082°E

Event Time

  1. 2013-05-17 06:43:16 UTC
  2. 2013-05-17 17:43:16 UTC+11:00 at epicenter
  3. 2013-05-17 01:43:16 UTC-05:00 system time

Location

11.085°S 165.082°E depth=10.3km (6.4mi)

Nearby Cities

  1. 91km (57mi) WSW of Lata, Solomon Islands
  2. 541km (336mi) NNW of Luganville, Vanuatu
  3. 591km (367mi) ESE of Honiara, Solomon Islands
  4. 814km (506mi) NNW of Port-Vila, Vanuatu
  5. 1112km (691mi) NNW of We, New Caledonia

 

 

….

Tectonic Summary

Seismotectonics of the Eastern Margin of the Australia Plate

The eastern margin of the Australia plate is one of the most sesimically active areas of the world due to high rates of convergence between the Australia and Pacific plates. In the region of New Zealand, the 3000 km long Australia-Pacific plate boundary extends from south of Macquarie Island to the southern Kermadec Island chain. It includes an oceanic transform (the Macquarie Ridge), two oppositely verging subduction zones (Puysegur and Hikurangi), and a transpressive continental transform, the Alpine Fault through South Island, New Zealand.

Since 1900 there have been 15 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded near New Zealand. Nine of these, and the four largest, occurred along or near the Macquarie Ridge, including the 1989 M8.2 event on the ridge itself, and the 2004 M8.1 event 200 km to the west of the plate boundary, reflecting intraplate deformation. The largest recorded earthquake in New Zealand itself was the 1931 M7.8 Hawke’s Bay earthquake, which killed 256 people. The last M7.5+ earthquake along the Alpine Fault was 170 years ago; studies of the faults’ strain accumulation suggest that similar events are likely to occur again.

North of New Zealand, the Australia-Pacific boundary stretches east of Tonga and Fiji to 250 km south of Samoa. For 2,200 km the trench is approximately linear, and includes two segments where old (>120 Myr) Pacific oceanic lithosphere rapidly subducts westward (Kermadec and Tonga). At the northern end of the Tonga trench, the boundary curves sharply westward and changes along a 700 km-long segment from trench-normal subduction, to oblique subduction, to a left lateral transform-like structure.

Australia-Pacific convergence rates increase northward from 60 mm/yr at the southern Kermadec trench to 90 mm/yr at the northern Tonga trench; however, significant back arc extension (or equivalently, slab rollback) causes the consumption rate of subducting Pacific lithosphere to be much faster. The spreading rate in the Havre trough, west of the Kermadec trench, increases northward from 8 to 20 mm/yr. The southern tip of this spreading center is propagating into the North Island of New Zealand, rifting it apart. In the southern Lau Basin, west of the Tonga trench, the spreading rate increases northward from 60 to 90 mm/yr, and in the northern Lau Basin, multiple spreading centers result in an extension rate as high as 160 mm/yr. The overall subduction velocity of the Pacific plate is the vector sum of Australia-Pacific velocity and back arc spreading velocity: thus it increases northward along the Kermadec trench from 70 to 100 mm/yr, and along the Tonga trench from 150 to 240 mm/yr.

The Kermadec-Tonga subduction zone generates many large earthquakes on the interface between the descending Pacific and overriding Australia plates, within the two plates themselves and, less frequently, near the outer rise of the Pacific plate east of the trench. Since 1900, 40 M7.5+ earthquakes have been recorded, mostly north of 30°S. However, it is unclear whether any of the few historic M8+ events that have occurred close to the plate boundary were underthrusting events on the plate interface, or were intraplate earthquakes. On September 29, 2009, one of the largest normal fault (outer rise) earthquakes ever recorded (M8.1) occurred south of Samoa, 40 km east of the Tonga trench, generating a tsunami that killed at least 180 people.

 

 

….

Instrumental Intensity

ShakeMap Intensity Image

 

 

….

Earth Watch Report  –  Earthquakes

Vanuatu  -  4.6 mag EQ May  10th  2013 photo Vanuatu-46magEQMay10th2013_zpsd0723036.jpg
….

M4.6 – 42km SE of Port-Vila, Vanuatu 2013-05-10 11:18:41 UTC



Earthquake location 17.981°S, 168.629°E

Event Time

  1. 2013-05-10 11:18:41 UTC
  2. 2013-05-10 22:18:41 UTC+11:00 at epicenter
  3. 2013-05-10 06:18:41 UTC-05:00 system time

Location

17.981°S 168.629°E depth=145.7km (90.5mi)

Nearby Cities

  1. 42km (26mi) SE of Port-Vila, Vanuatu
  2. 312km (194mi) SSE of Luganville, Vanuatu
  3. 355km (221mi) NNE of We, New Caledonia
  4. 514km (319mi) NNE of Dumbea, New Caledonia
  5. 42km (26mi) SE of Port-Vila, Vanuatu

….

Tectonic Summary

Seismotectonics of the Eastern Margin of the Australia Plate

The eastern margin of the Australia plate is one of the most sesimically active areas of the world due to high rates of convergence between the Australia and Pacific plates. In the region of New Zealand, the 3000 km long Australia-Pacific plate boundary extends from south of Macquarie Island to the southern Kermadec Island chain. It includes an oceanic transform (the Macquarie Ridge), two oppositely verging subduction zones (Puysegur and Hikurangi), and a transpressive continental transform, the Alpine Fault through South Island, New Zealand.

Since 1900 there have been 15 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded near New Zealand. Nine of these, and the four largest, occurred along or near the Macquarie Ridge, including the 1989 M8.2 event on the ridge itself, and the 2004 M8.1 event 200 km to the west of the plate boundary, reflecting intraplate deformation. The largest recorded earthquake in New Zealand itself was the 1931 M7.8 Hawke’s Bay earthquake, which killed 256 people. The last M7.5+ earthquake along the Alpine Fault was 170 years ago; studies of the faults’ strain accumulation suggest that similar events are likely to occur again.

North of New Zealand, the Australia-Pacific boundary stretches east of Tonga and Fiji to 250 km south of Samoa. For 2,200 km the trench is approximately linear, and includes two segments where old (>120 Myr) Pacific oceanic lithosphere rapidly subducts westward (Kermadec and Tonga). At the northern end of the Tonga trench, the boundary curves sharply westward and changes along a 700 km-long segment from trench-normal subduction, to oblique subduction, to a left lateral transform-like structure.

Australia-Pacific convergence rates increase northward from 60 mm/yr at the southern Kermadec trench to 90 mm/yr at the northern Tonga trench; however, significant back arc extension (or equivalently, slab rollback) causes the consumption rate of subducting Pacific lithosphere to be much faster. The spreading rate in the Havre trough, west of the Kermadec trench, increases northward from 8 to 20 mm/yr. The southern tip of this spreading center is propagating into the North Island of New Zealand, rifting it apart. In the southern Lau Basin, west of the Tonga trench, the spreading rate increases northward from 60 to 90 mm/yr, and in the northern Lau Basin, multiple spreading centers result in an extension rate as high as 160 mm/yr. The overall subduction velocity of the Pacific plate is the vector sum of Australia-Pacific velocity and back arc spreading velocity: thus it increases northward along the Kermadec trench from 70 to 100 mm/yr, and along the Tonga trench from 150 to 240 mm/yr.

The Kermadec-Tonga subduction zone generates many large earthquakes on the interface between the descending Pacific and overriding Australia plates, within the two plates themselves and, less frequently, near the outer rise of the Pacific plate east of the trench. Since 1900, 40 M7.5+ earthquakes have been recorded, mostly north of 30°S. However, it is unclear whether any of the few historic M8+ events that have occurred close to the plate boundary were underthrusting events on the plate interface, or were intraplate earthquakes. On September 29, 2009, one of the largest normal fault (outer rise) earthquakes ever recorded (M8.1) occurred south of Samoa, 40 km east of the Tonga trench, generating a tsunami that killed at least 180 people.

….

….

Earth Watch Report  –  Earthquakes

Vanuatu 6.0 USGS 5.8 magnitude  earthquake  RSOE  april 13th, 2013 photo Vanuatu60USGS58magnitudeearthquakeRSOEapril13th2013_zpsd2db1738.jpg

6.0 60km NE of Isangel, Vanuatu 2013-04-13 22:49:49 19.135°S 169.637°E 270.7

M6.0 – 60km NE of Isangel, Vanuatu 2013-04-13 22:49:49 UTC

Earthquake location 19.135°S, 169.637°E

Event Time

  1. 2013-04-13 22:49:49 UTC
  2. 2013-04-14 09:49:49 UTC+11:00 at epicenter
  3. 2013-04-13 17:49:49 UTC-05:00 system time

Location

19.135°S 169.637°E depth=270.7km (168.2mi)

Nearby Cities

  1. 60km (37mi) NE of Isangel, Vanuatu
  2. 208km (129mi) SE of Port-Vila, Vanuatu
  3. 317km (197mi) NE of We, New Caledonia
  4. 470km (292mi) NE of Dumbea, New Caledonia
  5. 471km (293mi) NE of Mont-Dore, New Caledonia

Tectonic Summary

Seismotectonics of the Eastern Margin of the Australia Plate

The eastern margin of the Australia plate is one of the most sesimically active areas of the world due to high rates of convergence between the Australia and Pacific plates. In the region of New Zealand, the 3000 km long Australia-Pacific plate boundary extends from south of Macquarie Island to the southern Kermadec Island chain. It includes an oceanic transform (the Macquarie Ridge), two oppositely verging subduction zones (Puysegur and Hikurangi), and a transpressive continental transform, the Alpine Fault through South Island, New Zealand.

Since 1900 there have been 15 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded near New Zealand. Nine of these, and the four largest, occurred along or near the Macquarie Ridge, including the 1989 M8.2 event on the ridge itself, and the 2004 M8.1 event 200 km to the west of the plate boundary, reflecting intraplate deformation. The largest recorded earthquake in New Zealand itself was the 1931 M7.8 Hawke’s Bay earthquake, which killed 256 people. The last M7.5+ earthquake along the Alpine Fault was 170 years ago; studies of the faults’ strain accumulation suggest that similar events are likely to occur again.

North of New Zealand, the Australia-Pacific boundary stretches east of Tonga and Fiji to 250 km south of Samoa. For 2,200 km the trench is approximately linear, and includes two segments where old (>120 Myr) Pacific oceanic lithosphere rapidly subducts westward (Kermadec and Tonga). At the northern end of the Tonga trench, the boundary curves sharply westward and changes along a 700 km-long segment from trench-normal subduction, to oblique subduction, to a left lateral transform-like structure.

Australia-Pacific convergence rates increase northward from 60 mm/yr at the southern Kermadec trench to 90 mm/yr at the northern Tonga trench; however, significant back arc extension (or equivalently, slab rollback) causes the consumption rate of subducting Pacific lithosphere to be much faster. The spreading rate in the Havre trough, west of the Kermadec trench, increases northward from 8 to 20 mm/yr. The southern tip of this spreading center is propagating into the North Island of New Zealand, rifting it apart. In the southern Lau Basin, west of the Tonga trench, the spreading rate increases northward from 60 to 90 mm/yr, and in the northern Lau Basin, multiple spreading centers result in an extension rate as high as 160 mm/yr. The overall subduction velocity of the Pacific plate is the vector sum of Australia-Pacific velocity and back arc spreading velocity: thus it increases northward along the Kermadec trench from 70 to 100 mm/yr, and along the Tonga trench from 150 to 240 mm/yr.

Earth Watch Report  –  Earthquakes

6.0 162km NW of Ceva-i-Ra, Fiji 2013-03-24 08:13:44 20.777°S 173.407°E 10.0

M6.0 – 162km NW of Ceva-i-Ra, Fiji 2013-03-24 08:13:44 UTC

Earthquake location 20.777°S, 173.407°E

Event Time

  1. 2013-03-24 08:13:44 UTC
  2. 2013-03-24 20:13:44 UTC+12:00 at epicenter
  3. 2013-03-24 03:13:44 UTC-05:00 system time

Location

20.777°S 173.407°E depth=10.0km (6.2mi)

Nearby Cities

  1. 162km (101mi) NW of Ceva-i-Ra, Fiji
  2. 534km (332mi) SW of Nadi, Fiji
  3. 603km (375mi) WSW of Suva, Fiji
  4. 631km (392mi) ESE of Port-Vila, Vanuatu
  5. 639km (397mi) E of We, New Caledonia

 

Tectonic Summary

Seismotectonics of the Eastern Margin of the Australia Plate

The eastern margin of the Australia plate is one of the most sesimically active areas of the world due to high rates of convergence between the Australia and Pacific plates. In the region of New Zealand, the 3000 km long Australia-Pacific plate boundary extends from south of Macquarie Island to the southern Kermadec Island chain. It includes an oceanic transform (the Macquarie Ridge), two oppositely verging subduction zones (Puysegur and Hikurangi), and a transpressive continental transform, the Alpine Fault through South Island, New Zealand.

Since 1900 there have been 15 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded near New Zealand. Nine of these, and the four largest, occurred along or near the Macquarie Ridge, including the 1989 M8.2 event on the ridge itself, and the 2004 M8.1 event 200 km to the west of the plate boundary, reflecting intraplate deformation. The largest recorded earthquake in New Zealand itself was the 1931 M7.8 Hawke’s Bay earthquake, which killed 256 people. The last M7.5+ earthquake along the Alpine Fault was 170 years ago; studies of the faults’ strain accumulation suggest that similar events are likely to occur again.

North of New Zealand, the Australia-Pacific boundary stretches east of Tonga and Fiji to 250 km south of Samoa. For 2,200 km the trench is approximately linear, and includes two segments where old (>120 Myr) Pacific oceanic lithosphere rapidly subducts westward (Kermadec and Tonga). At the northern end of the Tonga trench, the boundary curves sharply westward and changes along a 700 km-long segment from trench-normal subduction, to oblique subduction, to a left lateral transform-like structure.

Australia-Pacific convergence rates increase northward from 60 mm/yr at the southern Kermadec trench to 90 mm/yr at the northern Tonga trench; however, significant back arc extension (or equivalently, slab rollback) causes the consumption rate of subducting Pacific lithosphere to be much faster. The spreading rate in the Havre trough, west of the Kermadec trench, increases northward from 8 to 20 mm/yr. The southern tip of this spreading center is propagating into the North Island of New Zealand, rifting it apart. In the southern Lau Basin, west of the Tonga trench, the spreading rate increases northward from 60 to 90 mm/yr, and in the northern Lau Basin, multiple spreading centers result in an extension rate as high as 160 mm/yr. The overall subduction velocity of the Pacific plate is the vector sum of Australia-Pacific velocity and back arc spreading velocity: thus it increases northward along the Kermadec trench from 70 to 100 mm/yr, and along the Tonga trench from 150 to 240 mm/yr.

Instrumental Intensity

ShakeMap Intensity Image

 

Thriving economy abandons cash for commodities

With the Western world rocked by economic turmoil, we explore an alternative financial system that’s secure, stable and has stood the test of time. In Vanuatu, a different approach to money is thriving.

According to the UN Vanuatu is one of the world’s least developed countries, but no one goes hungry there. When they need money they simply make their own. “The only thing we need money for is to pay for salt, soap and kerosene.” School fees and medical bills are paid in exchange with local produce, woven mats and pigs.”Pigs tusks can hold their value against any other form of currency.” On the island of Pentecost the bank accepts deposits of pig tusks and claims to have reserves of $1.4 million. As the world frets about the fragility of its financial system, “Vanuatu is ready to teach all the other countries the road to a good life.”

A Film By SBS
Distributed By Journeyman Pictures
May 2012

Earth Watch Report  –  Earthquakes

6.1 104km W of Port-Vila, Vanuatu 2013-02-28 03:09:44 17.771°S 167.341°E 15.1

M6.1 – 104km W of Port-Vila, Vanuatu 2013-02-28 03:09:44 UTC

Earthquake location 17.771°S, 167.341°E

Event Time

  1. 2013-02-28 03:09:44 UTC
  2. 2013-02-28 14:09:44 UTC+11:00 at epicenter
  3. 2013-02-27 21:09:44 UTC-06:00 system time

Location

17.771°S 167.341°E depth=15.1km (9.4mi)

Nearby Cities

  1. 104km (65mi) W of Port-Vila, Vanuatu
  2. 248km (154mi) S of Luganville, Vanuatu
  3. 348km (216mi) N of We, New Caledonia
  4. 493km (306mi) N of Dumbea, New Caledonia
  5. 104km (65mi) W of Port-Vila, Vanuatu