Tag Archive: University of Edinburgh

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…………………………………………………………..EurekAlert! Science News

Public Release: 1-Dec-2015

Viruses, too, are our fingerprint

University of Helsinki

EurekAlert! Science News

IMAGE: The researchers document the presence of parvovirus DNA in the bones of Finnish World War II casualties who remained exposed to diverse climatic conditions in former Finnish, current Russian territory,… view more

Credit: Veikko Somerpuro / University of Helsinki


A group of researchers from the University of Helsinki and the University of Edinburgh have been the first to find the genetic material of a human virus from old human bones. Published in the journal Scientific Reports, the study analyzed the skeletal remains of Second World War casualties from the battlefields of Karelia.

Upon infection, many viruses remain in the tissues and their DNA can be analyzed even decades thereafter. Although their genetic material has been found in many organs, the researchers show that viral DNA is also present in bone.

“Human tissue is like a life-long archive that stores the fingerprint of the viruses that an individual has encountered during his or her lifetime,” describes Klaus Hedman, professor of clinical virology.

The finding has important implications since bone is most likely to be preserved after death, thus opening the door to the study of the viruses that caused infections in the past. In a publication in Scientific Reports, the researchers show that this is indeed the case. They document the presence of parvovirus DNA in the bones of Finnish World War II casualties who remained exposed to diverse climatic conditions in former Finnish, current Russian territory, until recent years when they were repatriated to their homeland.


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Natural Blaze

Two New GE Pigs Want to Go To the Market


By Heather Callaghan

Did you think the genetically modified pig was gone? It is true that Canada’s “Enviro Pig” was scrapped in 2012 after consumer backlash and lack of university funding. That vacancy mainly left genetically modified salmon in the running to become the very first commercial GM animal.

But there are two new types of engineered pigs poised for approval in their respective countries. Now, with the secret Trans Pacific Partnership out in the open, it becomes clear that the deal opens the door for a swarm of global biotech ventures that can more easily glide their wares across country boundaries.

Whereas Enviro Pig’s genetic splicing was supposedly intended to cut down on phosphorous waste that kills waterways, two more pigs are vying for public acceptance.

It’s important to note that these animals aren’t “transgenic” like many of the GE crops on the market. That is, they do not contain genes from other species or kingdoms like bacteria. Biotech involves more than GMOs, and some methods currently fall outside of regulation or definition. However, we are still talking genetic engineering.

CBC News reports on them:

  • Bruce Whitelaw and his colleagues at the University of Edinburgh are developing a pig resistant to African swine fever, a devastating disease with no vaccine or cure that has led to hundreds of pigs being slaughtered in Europe to prevent its spread.
  • Jinsu Kim and his colleagues at Seoul National University have developed “double-muscle” pigs that produce twice as much muscle as a regular pig, resulting in higher protein, lower fat pork.


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CBC News

Genetically modified pigs raise concerns about food regulation

Regulatory system lacks transparency, critics say

CBC News Posted: Nov 03, 2015 11:50 AM ETLast Updated: Nov 04, 2015 8:59 AM ET

Two kinds of genetically modified pigs are on their way to becoming pork on our dinner plates. If they do, they'll be some of the very first genetically modified animals to enter our food system.

Two kinds of genetically modified pigs are on their way to becoming pork on our dinner plates. If they do, they’ll be some of the very first genetically modified animals to enter our food system. (Laszlo Balogh/Reuters)


The Current: GMO pigs’ cautionary tale of genetically modified food research 24:43

Two kinds of genetically modified pigs are on their way to becoming pork on our dinner plates. If they do, they’ll be some of the very first genetically modified animals to enter our food system, along with genetically modified salmon that is also trying to gain regulatory approval.

But consumers are wary and lack confidence in governments’ readiness to regulate this new class of food product, researchers and activists say.

The genetically modified pigs under development are designed to improve pork production in different ways:

  • Bruce Whitelaw and his colleagues at the University of Edinburgh are developing a pig resistant to African swine fever, a devastating disease with no vaccine or cure that has led to hundreds of pigs being slaughtered in Europe to prevent its spread.
  • Jinsu Kim and his colleagues at Seoul National University have developed “double-muscle” pigs that produce twice as much muscle as a regular pig, resulting in higher protein, lower fat pork.

In both cases, researchers have precisely targeted an individual pig gene to create a mutation that turns up or turns down certain genes. The African swine fever resistant pig has an immune gene that is slightly more like a warthog’s. The double-muscle pig has a mutation similar to one produced by normal breeding in a muscly cow breed called the Belgian blue.

The pigs aren’t “transgenic” — that is, they don’t contain genes from other organisms. That makes them unlike some genetically modified crops already on the market, which may contain genes from organisms such as bacteria.


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Related Stories

Featured Article
Academic Journal
Main Category: MRSA / Drug Resistance
Also Included In: Infectious Diseases / Bacteria / Viruses;  Veterinary
Article Date: 16 Aug 2013 – 8:00 PDT

A new study has suggested that a type of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) found in humans may have originated from cattle as far back as 40 years or more.

Are they the culprits? Researchers say a type of MRSA in humans may have come from cows.

Researchers from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, analyzed around 40 strains of the bacterium – Staphylococcus aureus, which is capable of building up methicillin antibiotic resistance, leading to MRSA.

Staphylococcus aureus spreads easily in humans through skin-to-skin contact.

The researchers found that at least two genetic subtypes of the bacterium, already present in widespread human MRSA, could be traced back to cattle.

The study, published in the journal mBio, suggests that the bacterium may have passed from cattle to humans by way of direct contact, possibly through people working with farm animals.

Professor Ross Fitzgerald of the Roslin Institute at the university and lead study author, said:

“Human infections caused by bacteria being transmitted directly from livestock are well known to occur.

However, this is the first clear genetic evidence of subtypes of Staph. aureus which jumped from cattle and developed the capacity to transmit widely among human populations.”

Read More Here

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 Big Brother


A Smoker’s License: Too Radical for Tobacco Control?



Simon Chapman from the University of Sydney in Australia and Jeff Collin from the University of Edinburgh in Scotland both agree that creative thinking is required to tackle the global smoking epidemic (especially as tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries) but disagree on the need for a smoker’s licence.

Chapman makes the case for introducing a smart card license for smokers, which would be designed to limit access to tobacco products and also to encourage smokers to quit. He argues that as tobacco sale is subject to trivial controls compared with other dangerous products that threaten both public and personal safety, a different approach is necessary — a smoker’s (tobacco user’s) licence .

Chapman explains how such a licence would work: “All smokers would be required to obtain a smart swipecard license to transact any purchase from a licensed tobacco retailer. Retailers could not sell to anyone without a card.”

Key elements of the proposed smoker’s license include an annual cost for the license (depending on the number of cigarettes smoked), which would be reissued every year, smokers setting daily limits for the number of cigarettes they buy, and a test of knowledge of health risks for people wanting to buy a licence.

Champan argues: “Opponents of the idea would be quick to suggest that Orwellian social engineers would soon be calling for licenses to drink alcohol and to eat junk food or engage in any ”risky” activity. This argument rests on poor public understanding of the magnitude of the risks of smoking relative to other cumulative everyday risks to health. ”

Collin is one such opponent and argues against the proposed smoker’s licence: “The authoritarian connotations of the smoker’s license would inevitably meet with broad opposition. In the United Kingdom, for example, successive governments have failed to introduce identity cards. If it’s very difficult to envisage health advocates securing support for a comparable scheme on the basis of a public health rationale, it is still harder to see why they should wish to.”

A smoking licence would also increase stigmatization of smokers argues Collins and also shift focus away from the tobacco industry, the real cause of the global smoking epidemic.

Collins concludes: “fundamental challenge confronting any endgame strategy is that the move towards a tobacco-free society should address the social determinants of health and promote equity and social justice. The proposal for a smoker’s license should be rejected as failing this challenge.”


Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Public Library of Science, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Journal Reference:

  1. Simon Chapman. The Case for a Smoker’s License. PLoS Medicine, 2012; 9 (11): e1001342 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001342

Crossroads News : Changes In The World Around Us And Our Place In It


The  question that  keeps  running through  my  mind is this:

With all the reports of  chem-trails are  they  really  expecting us  to  believe  that  these studies  have  not  already  taken  place  on a  governmental level?  If  they  can  equip planes  to spray chemicals  into the  clouds to seed them in preparation  for their  climate experiments.  Then  why  go through  the trouble of  creating an  elaborate  smoke  screen  of  research?  Is  it  for  our  benefit  to make  the  chem-trailing  more  prevalent  and   use cloud  brightening  as  an  excuse?  Or is it part of the   Elite  Agenda  to  put  it all out there in plain   sight  for our  unwitting  cooperation?   Interesting questions  are they  not?  What  do you  think?

Experiment would test cloud geoengineering as way to slow warming

by Staff Writers
Seattle WA (SPX)

File image.

Even though it sounds like science fiction, researchers are taking a second look at a controversial idea that uses futuristic ships to shoot salt water high into the sky over the oceans, creating clouds that reflect sunlight and thus counter global warming.

University of Washington atmospheric physicist Rob Wood describes a possible way to run an experiment to test the concept on a small scale in a comprehensive paper published this month in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

The point of the paper – which includes updates on the latest study into what kind of ship would be best to spray the salt water into the sky, how large the water droplets should be and the potential climatological impacts – is to encourage more scientists to consider the idea of marine cloud brightening and even poke holes in it. He and a colleague detail an experiment to test the concept.

“What we’re trying to do is make the case that this is a beneficial experiment to do,” Wood said. With enough interest in cloud brightening from the scientific community, funding for an experiment may become possible, he said.

The theory behind so-called marine cloud brightening is that adding particles, in this case sea salt, to the sky over the ocean would form large, long-lived clouds. Clouds appear when water forms around particles. Since there is a limited amount of water in the air, adding more particles creates more, but smaller, droplets.

“It turns out that a greater number of smaller drops has a greater surface area, so it means the clouds reflect a greater amount of light back into space,” Wood said. That creates a cooling effect on Earth.

Marine cloud brightening is part of a broader concept known as geoengineering which encompasses efforts to use technology to manipulate the environment. Brightening, like other geoengineering proposals, is controversial for its ethical and political ramifications and the uncertainty around its impact. But those aren’t reasons not to study it, Wood said.

“I would rather that responsible scientists test the idea than groups that might have a vested interest in proving its success,” he said. The danger with private organizations experimenting with geoengineering is that “there is an assumption that it’s got to work,” he said.

Wood and his colleagues propose trying a small-scale experiment to test feasibility and begin to study effects. The test should start by deploying sprayers on a ship or barge to ensure that they can inject enough particles of the targeted size to the appropriate elevation, Wood and a colleague wrote in the report. An airplane equipped with sensors would study the physical and chemical characteristics of the particles and how they disperse.

The next step would be to use additional airplanes to study how the cloud develops and how long it remains. The final phase of the experiment would send out five to 10 ships spread out across a 100 kilometer, or 62 mile, stretch. The resulting clouds would be large enough so that scientists could use satellites to examine them and their ability to reflect light.

Wood said there is very little chance of long-term effects from such an experiment. Based on studies of pollutants, which emit particles that cause a similar reaction in clouds, scientists know that the impact of adding particles to clouds lasts only a few days.

Still, such an experiment would be unusual in the world of climate science, where scientists observe rather than actually try to change the atmosphere.

Wood notes that running the experiment would advance knowledge around how particles like pollutants impact the climate, although the main reason to do it would be to test the geoengineering idea.

A phenomenon that inspired marine cloud brightening is ship trails: clouds that form behind the paths of ships crossing the ocean, similar to the trails that airplanes leave across the sky. Ship trails form around particles released from burning fuel.

But in some cases ship trails make clouds darker. “We don’t really know why that is,” Wood said.

Despite increasing interest from scientists like Wood, there is still strong resistance to cloud brightening.

“It’s a quick-fix idea when really what we need to do is move toward a low-carbon emission economy, which is turning out to be a long process,” Wood said. “I think we ought to know about the possibilities, just in case.”

The authors of the paper are treading cautiously.

“We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of [marine cloud brightening] unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favor of such action,” they wrote in the paper’s summary.

There are 25 authors on the paper, including scientists from University of Leeds, University of Edinburgh and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The lead author is John Latham of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the University of Manchester, who pioneered the idea of marine cloud brightening.

Related Links
University of Washington
Climate Science News – Modeling, Mitigation Adaptation


New Sperm Gene Discovery Could Lead to Male Birth Control

Published on May 25, 2012 by

Women have many options when it comes to birth control, while men don’t have any. But all that could change.

Researchers have discovered a gene that is essential to the production of sperm.

Scientists at the University of Edinburgh found that the gene, called Katnal1, causes temporary infertility in male mice when blocked.

The team gave mice a chemical called ENU that triggers genetic mutations. They then bred the mice to see if any of them became infertile, isolated the impotent mice, and backtracked through their genetic code to identify which gene was disrupted by ENU.

The team identified that Katnal1 is used to regulate a structure known as microtubules, which are the parts of sperm needed for nutrients and support.

According to the study, this gene could be key in developing birth control for men, and better understanding male infertility.

With this key bit of information, scientists say a non-hormonal contraceptive for men may be just five to 10 years away.

Skin From Heart Attack Patients Transformed Into Beating Heart Cells

Published on May 25, 2012 by

Scientists have turned skin tissue from heart attack patients into fresh, beating heart cells in a first step towards a new therapy for the condition that may eventually help people who survive heart attacks, but are severely debilitated by damage to the organ.

Read the full story here:

Red alert for humanity: Chemical damage can be inherited by offspring through unlimited generations

By Mike Adams,
(NaturalNews) Groundbreaking new science reveals that the harmful effects of exposure to synthetic chemicals are passed from generation to generation via “epigenetics,” causing measurable damage to future generations even if those offspring are never exposed to the original chemical. The phenomenon of “Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance” (ETI) has now been demonstrated in live animals, and if the implications of this research are fully understood, it would force human civilization to radically…

Fish consumption lowers risk of colorectal cancers

By Danna Norek,
(NaturalNews) New research suggests that eating fish may have yet another huge health benefit to add to its repertoire – the prevention of colorectal cancers. A study centered around fish consumption and rectal and colon cancers found that participants who ate fish three or more times per week had a reduced chance of developing these cancers. Fish and how it may impact your colon and rectal health.  While the study showed definite colorectal health benefits in eating fish, it did not delve further…


Holistic Health

Discover the super-food power of noni

By PF Louis,
(NaturalNews) You may have seen ads promoting noni juice or heard about its health benefits and wondered if it’s for real. Hopefully, this article will shed some light on the subject of noni. Most of the hype comes from multi-level marketing (MLM) providers. Their product is usually the most expensive and most processed. Those noni juices are often first pureed, sometime frozen, and then sent off to be liquefied from concentrate. Usually they are flavored or sweetened. Pure noni juice isn’t…

Fructose makes you stupid; DHA makes you smart

By Randall Neustaedter OMD,

(NaturalNews) A recent study in rats examined the effect of omega-3 fats (particularly DHA) and fructose on memory. Rats were trained to solve a maze and then given either a diet with omega-3 fats (DHA and flax seed oil) or one deficient in omega-3 fats. Each group was further divided into those also fed fructose in their drinking water or not. The group that was fed the fructose showed impairment of memory and took a longer time to solve the maze than prior to eating fructose. Those fed an omega…

Natural mosquito repellents

By Jordan and Kyla Miller,
(NaturalNews) Mosquitoes can be a nuisance when trying to enjoy the outdoors, especially if you’re trying to host guests. The faint buzzing reminds us of those pesky pricks we receive when we least expect it. Soon thereafter the itching and swelling begins as our bodies react to the foreign attack. Sometimes deadly, the mosquito bite is more of a nuisance than anything. The itch and swelling can last anywhere from a couple of days to a few weeks. As with health, in order to avoid mosquito bites,…


Pet Health

Why is This Dangerous Infection on the Rise in Pets?

Posted By: Dr. Becker 

pets, dog, catThe staphylococcus aureus bacteria is a normal strain of bacteria your pet normally harbors (as do people). It’s found on your dog’s or cat’s skin, mucous membranes, urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts.

When this normal bacteria undergoes a genetic mutation, it can become a pet’s worst nightmare. Instead of being a normal part of your pet’s healthy bacteria it can cause life threatening infection due to its resistance to even the strongest antibiotics, such as Methicillin. These infections are called Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, or “MRSA infections,”and are resistant to most antibiotic treatments.

As a result, they can lead to serious illness and even death.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious public health problem that is getting progressively worse and actually exacts a greater human death toll than “modern plagues” like AIDS.

Unfortunately, MRSA infections are also on the rise in our companion animals.

Typically, staph bacteria are relatively harmless. If the bacteria enter your pet’s body through a cut, it may cause an infection (staph bacteria is a common cause of skin infections) but even these are typically mild and can be easily treated. But unlike typical staph bacteria, MRSA is much more dangerous because it has become resistant to the broad-spectrum antibiotics commonly used to treat it, such as methicillin, oxacillin, penicillin and amoxicillin.

Why MRSA Poses a Threat to Your Dog or Cat

Antibiotics are one of the top two drugs prescribed by traditional veterinarians (steroids are the other).

As a holistic veterinarian, I am convinced antibiotics are over prescribed to the point of abuse in many conventional veterinary offices. Over prescribing antibiotics can set your pet up for a future allergic reaction to the drug. But worse, frequent and often unnecessary use of these drugs is causing antibiotic resistance in a growing number of bacteria strains.

When antibiotics are no longer effective against serious bacterial infections, life-threatening consequences are the result. MRSA is an example of a serious and sometimes fatal staph infection that is antibiotic resistant.

Read Full Article Here

Your Pet’s Good Health Begins in Their Gut

By: Dr. Becker  

Carnivores, omnivores and herbivores.

Chances are, the pets you care for fall into one of these three categories. And each type of pet has distinct nutritional needs.

It’s important to remember that no matter what your personal beliefs about food, you can’t change the DNA of your pets. They were designed by nature to consume certain types of food.

The Logic of Nature

Rabbits and horses are herbivores, or vegetarians.

They have very large front teeth (called incisors) to grasp vegetation. Their jaws shift from side to side to grind grasses and fibrous plant material on their large, flat molars.

The long gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of herbivores are designed to ferment these foodstuffs into usable nutrition.

Omnivores, such as bearded dragons, for example, are designed to chew and process both meat protein (insects) and plant material.

Dogs, cats and snakes are carnivores, with sharp, interlocking teeth designed to grasp prey.

Cats and snakes are obligate carnivores, which means they must consume a meat diet to maintain health, whereas dogs are scavenging carnivores, who, in addition to a meat based diet, can consume other types of foods without dire consequences.

By nature’s design, rabbits and horses were never intended to consume meat. Dogs and cats were not designed to eat or digest grains. So, as you would expect, when you feed your dog and cat companions foods they were not designed to eat, you’re asking for trouble.

But before we get to exactly what happens when your companions consume biologically inappropriate foods, you must understand two key points to overall health for people and animals alike:

  • The gastrointestinal system must be healthy to avoid disease.
  • The GI tract is the body’s number one barrier to disease and disease processes.

Read Full Article Here

One Simple Step to Radically Boost Your Pet’s Immune System

By: Dr. Becker

pets, dogAt long last, the benefit of probiotics for your companion animals is receiving the attention it deserves in the traditional veterinary community.

Probiotic therapy has been scientifically studied and proved beneficial in the treatment of pets with diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic renal disease, and pancreatitis.

Just as exciting are studies which indicate probiotics positively influence the development and health of your dog’s or cat’s immune system function.

According to Susan G. Wynn, DVM, of the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Tennessee:

“… it is increasingly clear that manipulation of the ecology of the gastrointestinal tract has powerful systemic effects. Use of probiotics clearly enhances immune function in a number of species, including dogs and cats, and appears to have a role in the treatment of animals with certain gastrointestinal conditions.”

Dr. Wynn goes on to say the use of probiotics in humans in the treatment of recurrent urinary tract infections, the prevention and management of allergies, and other conditions, suggests further potential benefits for our four-legged companions.

The bad news? Unfortunately, the value of many commercially available probiotic products is questionable, at best. Read on to learn more about quality variations in probiotic products and what you can do to insure you’re giving your dog or cat a high-quality supplement.

Read Full Article Here


Positivity Mind and Body

Motivation to Pursue Dreams and Hopes: Understanding the Brain’s Reward System

Published on May 25, 2012 by

(Visit: http://www.uctv.tv/) Sheri Johnson, Professor of Psychology at UC Berkeley, explores neurobiological, cognitive, emotional, and social triggers of mania, with a focus on the reward system. Series: “UCSF Osher Mini Medical School for the Public” [5/2012] [Health and Medicine] [Show ID: 23798]


Articles of Interest

Stray dog runs to Tibet with Chinese cyclists

Published on May 26, 2012 by

A dog with no home has run 1700km with some cyclists on their way to Tibet, after befriending them when they gave him a drumstick. Report by Louise Hulland.

Legislation may enable states to offer universal healthcare


A number of studies have concluded that state-run insurance systems would be cheaper for most people on an out-of-pocket basis than existing private insurance plans. (Chris O’Meara, Associated Press / April 27, 2012)

By David Lazarus

Universal coverage, Medicare for all, single payer — call it what you will. It’s clear that conservative forces are determined to prevent such a system from ever being introduced at the national level. So it’s up to the states.

The catch is that to make universal coverage work at the state level, you’d need some way to channel Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare funds into the system. At the moment, that’s difficult if not impossible.

But legislation quietly being drafted by Rep. Jim McDermott (D-Wash.) would change that. It would create a mechanism for states to request federal funds after establishing their own health insurance programs.

If passed into law — admittedly a long shot with Republicans controlling the House of Representatives — McDermott’s State-Based Universal Healthcare Act would represent a game changer for medical coverage in the United States.

It would, for the first time, create a system under which a Medicare-for-all program could be rolled out on a state-by-state basis. In California’s case, it would make coverage available to the roughly 7 million people now lacking health insurance.

“This is a huge deal,” said Jamie Court, president of Consumer Watchdog, a Santa Monica advocacy group. “This is a lifeline for people who want to create a Medicare system at the state level.”

I learned of McDermott’s bill after getting my hands on documents he had sent to other members of Congress seeking support for the legislation.

McDermott’s office confirmed that the documents and legislation are real but declined to make the congressman available for comment until the bill is formally introduced, which could happen as soon as next week.

Kinsey Kiriakos, a spokesman for McDermott, said by email that the bill is intended to advance the goals of President Obama‘s healthcare reform law, which would extend coverage to about 30 million of the 50 million people nationwide without insurance.

The reform law is now under scrutiny by the U.S. Supreme Court, primarily because of its requirement that most people buy health insurance or face a modest tax penalty.

McDermott’s bill “is based on the congressman’s belief that the Affordable Care Act will be upheld and the congressman’s new bill is meant to achieve the overall goals of the Affordable Care Act while giving states the option to build an alternative single-payer system,” Kiriakos said.

California came close to building such a system in 2006 and again in 2008 when the Legislature passed bills laying the groundwork for statewide universal coverage. Then-Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger vetoed both bills.

Read Full Article Here

Anti-vaccine backlash: Thousands refuse to enroll in Austin Community College

By Craig Stellpflug,
(NaturalNews) Administrators at the Austin Community College (ACC) admit that some 10,000 students have refused to enroll at ACC because of their vaccination requirements. Meanwhile, a Washington State rock band named The Refusers is storming Youtube with their latest hit “First do no harm. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y9y4Pq7lXAw Vaccine refusal is a basic human right that has been often challenged by the pro-vaccine “authorities” from the local well-meaning pediatrician to the government officials…

Congress votes down Sen. Durbin’s anti-supplement amendment, as well as Sen. Paul’s freedom of health speech amendment

By Ethan A. Huff, 

(NaturalNews) A sneaky, eleventh-hour attempt by Senator Dick Durbin (D-Ill.) to essentially shut down the supplement industry alongside an amendment pertaining to prescription drug user fees has failed. In a vote of 77-20, the U.S. Senate voted to table Amendment No. 2127, which would have created “duplicative, unnecessary, and unexpected new regulations” for the supplement industry that could have resulted in many common supplements being pulled from store shelves. To the surprise of the entire…


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