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Tag Archive: Spain


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Gardasil vaccine       Wikipedia.org

Jan Christian @ www.ambrotosphotography.com

 

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Health Nut News

 

The Independent: Another 18 girls claim adverse reactions to the HPV vaccine

– See more at: http://www.healthnutnews.com/the-independent-another-18-girls-claim-adverse-reactions-to-the-hpv-vaccine/#sthash.YYyHAaH6.dpuf

gardasil-dangersEighteen Irish teenage girls have recently come forward claiming to be suffering acute physical side-effects from the controversial HPV anti-cervical cancer vaccine administered in their schools. Parents came forward after the Sunday Independent revealed similar claims of suffering from 131 young women a weekend ago.



 These new allegations have surfaced since a doctor in Denmark (where Gardasil is no longer used) linked some chronic symptoms to the vaccination. In Denmark, one in 500 girls display a range of side-effects, there are 143 Irish teenagers are now suffering debilitating health issues, and we know girls in the US are suffering as well. Because of this, expert petitions are underway in France and Spain to ban its use, and Japan has stopped recommending the vaccine all together.
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sundaypost.com

How safe is the HPV vaccine? Thousands of adverse reactions to cervical cancer jab recorded annually

By Andrew Picken, 4 December 2015 4.51pm.

THOUSANDS of adverse reactions to the lifesaving cervical cancer jab are being recorded by health chiefs every year, The Sunday Post can reveal.

Campaigners last night said the vaccine should no longer be given to schoolgirls until more is found out about the side-effects of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine.

The Post’s figures show more than 6,000 suspected adverse reactions to the jab have been recorded across the UK since 2012, including 340 in Scotland.

However, campaigners claim this is just the tip of the iceberg as health chiefs estimate they only receive reports about 10% of all suspected adverse reactions, suggesting tens of thousands could have suffered similarly.

More than eight million HPV jabs have been given to girls aged 12 and 13 in the UK since 2008 and the vaccination programme is credited with saving 400 lives every year.

But pressure is growing for the authorities to get a better understanding of the side-effects as the figures obtained by The Post show one person south of the Border died this year as a result of a suspected adverse reaction to the HPV jab.

MSPs on Holyrood’s petitions committee agreed to ask SNP ministers for their view on campaigners’ calls to hold a roundtable discussion on the safety of the vaccine, involving medical and scientific experts from both sides of the debate.

 

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 The Inquisitr

December 13, 2015

Controversial HPV Vaccine Gardasil: Allegations That 18 Teenage Girls Suffer Acute Side Effects Surface, International Concern Is Growing

Gardasil, a vaccine for the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), has been labeled as a controversial since it has been made available. Although beneficial in preventing cancer within the girls that receive the vaccine, the side effects that some are experiencing can be debilitating for many girls. Those side effects have many wondering if the drug is safe enough for human use.

Common side effects of being vaccinated with Gardasil include nausea, headaches, and even fainting at the time of the vaccination, or shortly after, according to the Independent. However, more extreme side effects are more serious and longer lasting, often times permanent. They include chronic fatigue, chronic regional pain syndrome, postural tachycardia syndrome, and fibromyalgia, according to Jesper Mehlsen of the Frederiksberg Hospital in Denmark.

Mehlsen was quick to point out that the conditions have not been proven to be caused by Gardasil, but there is a growing trend among girls that have received the vaccine and are experiencing the exact same conditions over time.

“We have noted a pattern of symptoms in a relatively large group of patients and that these symptoms seem to have a temporal association to the vaccination.”

Cervical Cancer Vaccine
[Photo by Russell Kirk/Merck & Co. via Getty Images]

Recently, 18 teenage girls came forward to report debilitating side effects after taking Gardasil, joining the growing number of teens across the world that have experienced harmful side effects after taking Gardasil. In Ireland, about 131 girls have been identified, and in Denmark, over 1,100 hundred girls suffer from Gardasil side effects, according to the Independent. The number of reported drastic side effects in America vary depending on the study that is read. However, reports of negative and debilitating side effects from around the world have led nearly 40 percent of American parents to not vaccinate their children from HPV.

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Merck’s 9-valent HPV vaccine wins expanded FDA approval

SmartBrief · 14 hours ago

Sanofi Pasteur MSD received authorization from the European Commission to market its nine-valent human

FDA expands Gardasil 9 HPV vaccine approval to boys, young men

Healio · 15 hours ago

The FDA expanded the age indication for Gardasil 9 HPVvaccine to include boys and men aged 16 to 26 years, according to a press release …

 

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Report: Monsanto’s Latest GM Maize Doesn’t Reduce Pests or Increase Yields

And it’s banned by most of Europe
by Christina Sarich
Posted on December 10, 2015
 Monsanto promised that its latest and greatest GM crop, MON810, a genetically modified (GM) insecticidal maize banned by most of Europe, would increase yields and stop crop loss due to pests. A new report from the government of Aragon in Spain says those promises are empty. [1]

There is an inserted gene in the DNA of MON810 which allows the plant to make a protein that harms insects that try to eat it. The inserted gene is from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, which produces the Bt toxin that is poisonous to insects in the Lepidoptera order, including the European Corn Borer. [2] Three quarters of the corn grown in Aragon, Spain is currently genetically modified, but conventional varieties were tested against GM Maize varieties in 2014.

“Helen,” “Zoom,” and “Kayras” – the non-GM isogenic (parent) lines (plant varieties) – were compared with the GM varieties derived from each line. The genetic insert was the MON810 construct from the US company, Monsanto.

The report found that:

“Per hectare, from 12.6 to 14.3 kg of maize were harvested. The GM varieties and the non-GM conventional comparator had very similar yields – the difference was between 0.2 and 0.3 kilos.”

This means the GM maize did not produce more than conventional strains of maize.

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THIRD mystery ‘Death Star’ space ball to crash into Spanish village sparks terror among locals as mayor demands authorities explain what they are

  • A third strange black orb has fallen from space into a rural Spanish village 
  • Concerned locals and Villavieja’s mayor have demanded an explanation
  • The circular 50lb objects bear a strange resemblance to a Star Wars droid

A third mysterious black space object to fall from the sky into rural Spain has caused panic among locals.

The strange-looking black orb was found in the village of Villavieja in Murcia – becoming the latest instance of an increasingly bewildering phenomenon, the Olive Press reported.

It’s not yet known what the objects are, though theories range from UFOs to pieces of space debris.

The first instance of the strange phenomenon occurred one week ago, when Spanish goat farmers discovered the strange object, which bears a striking resemblance to the Star Wars torture device, the IT-O Interrogator, in Calasparra, Murcia.

The Civil Guard were called to investigate the black orb and the area was subsequently put under quarantine. Pictured is the second object to be found in the village earlier this week

The Civil Guard were called to investigate the black orb and the area was subsequently put under quarantine. Pictured is the second object to be found in the village earlier this week

The Civil Guard stated the object was an aerospace artefact and pointed to the possibility that it fell from a rocket or a satellite.

However, a few days later a second orb fell from the sky.

According to The Mirror, Jose Velez, the mayor of Calasparra, implored authorities to provide answers to worried residents.

‘Where are these objects coming from? Why are they falling here precisely?’

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Severe weather in the Alicante province

 

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Flash Flood Spain Province of Alicante, Moraira Damage level Details

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Flash Flood in Spain on Wednesday, 14 October, 2015 at 15:52 (03:52 PM) UTC.

Description
The province has experienced another episode of extreme heavy downpours with over 83 litres of rain per square metre recorded in the coastal town of Moraira, Alicante and a drop of 10 degrees in temperature in some areas in the province in just 24 hours. Nearby Javea received 40 litres per square metre. Alicante was the province most affected by the rains on October 13 according to the State Meteorological Agency, AEMET. The day started off with heavy low cloud and the rains started around 9am, not letting up for most of the day. Calpe, located just 12 kilometres from Moraira also experienced heavy rains, with many of the town’s roads including the Avenida Juan Carlos I being closed by the police. More than a dozen vehicles were left stranded as drainage systems struggled to deal with the excessive accumulation of water, which was approximately half a metre deep on some roads. The hugely popular Oktoberfest that is currently running in Calpe was also affected by the heavy rains and was forced to close until conditions improve. The province remains on yellow alert for high risk of rains and strong weather conditions.

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Earth Watch Report  –  Biological  Hazards

File:Coxiella burnetii, the bacteria that causes Q Fever.jpg

A dry fracture of a Vero cell exposing the contents of a vacuole where Coxiella burnetii are busy growing. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Author  :  National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Wikipedia.org

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Biological Hazard Spain Basque Country, Bilbao Damage level Details

 

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RSOE EDIS

Biological Hazard in Spain on Thursday, 10 April, 2014 at 03:07 (03:07 AM) UTC.

Description
According to the Provincial Council of Bizkaia, 8 workers from the landfill of Monte Anaiz, in the municipal district of Bilbao, are suffering from Q fever related to the presence of remains of cattle in the waste. In addition to the 8 confirmed cases, 25 are pending study. An initial focus of the outbreak has been recently traced to the Mechanical Biological Treatment Plant at Monte Anaiz and a 2nd cluster is located in Berriatua, where up to 10 people may have been infected. The outbreak is due to the fact that animal remains not intended for human consumption (byproducts such as heads, or goat and sheep hides) repeatedly enter the processing plant mixed in with urban waste. The symptoms of Q fever are similar to those of a flu, although sometimes it also affects the liver. The Basque Government and the Provincial Government of Bizkaia, in a coordinated manner, have adopted measures to control the outbreak. Extreme precaution is being taken and diagnostic tests have been applied to all staff and subcontractors as a preventive measure. Authorities are trying to identify the origin of these products, a difficult task, because the animal remains have come in garbage bags from which the identification tags have been removed.
Biohazard name: Q Fever
Biohazard level: 3/4 Hight
Biohazard desc.: Bacteria and viruses that can cause severe to fatal disease in humans, but for which vaccines or other treatments exist, such as anthrax, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, SARS virus, variola virus (smallpox), tuberculosis, typhus, Rift Valley fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, yellow fever, and malaria. Among parasites Plasmodium falciparum, which causes Malaria, and Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes trypanosomiasis, also come under this level.
Symptoms:
Status: confirmed

 

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File:Pneumonia x-ray.jpg

Combination of two x-rays found on the two websites http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/ct/what.html FDA website with normal chest x-ray http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol6no1/scrimgeourG2.htm CDC website documenting Q fever pneumonia All editing performed by me and released into public domain

Wikipedia.org

 

Signs and symptoms

Incubation period is usually two to three weeks.[8] The most common manifestation is mild flu-like symptoms with abrupt onset of fever, malaise, profuse perspiration, severe headache, myalgia (muscle pain), joint pain, loss of appetite, upper respiratory problems, dry cough, pleuritic pain, chills, confusion and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. The fever lasts approximately seven to 14 days.[citation needed]

Approximately half of infected individuals exhibit no symptoms.[8]

During its course, the disease can progress to an atypical pneumonia, which can result in a life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), whereby such symptoms usually occur during the first four to five days of infection.[citation needed]

Less often, Q fever causes (granulomatous) hepatitis, which may be asymptomatic or becomes symptomatic with malaise, fever, liver enlargement (hepatomegaly) and pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Whereas transaminase values are often elevated, jaundice is uncommon. Retinal vasculitis is a rare manifestation of Q fever.[9]

The chronic form of Q fever is virtually identical to inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (endocarditis),[10] which can occur months or decades following the infection. It is usually fatal if untreated. However, with appropriate treatment, the mortality falls to around 10%.

Clinical signs in animals

Cattle, goats and sheep are most commonly infected, and can serve as a reservoir for the bacteria. Q fever is a well recognized cause of abortions in ruminants and in pets. C. burnetii infection in dairy cattle has been well documented and its association with reproductive problems in these animals has been reported in Canada, USA, Cyprus, France, Hungary, Japan, Switzerland and West Germany.[11] For instance, in a study published in 2008,[12]a significant association has been shown between the herds’ seropositivity and typical clinical signs of Q Fever observed such as abortion, stillbirth, weak calves and repeat breeding. Moreover, experimental inoculation of C. burnetii in cattle induced not only respiratory disorders and cardiac failures (myocarditis) but also frequent abortions and irregular repeat breedings.[13]

 

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Published time: December 13, 2013 09:35
Edited time: December 13, 2013 13:48

 

Head of the Catalunyan regional government Artur Mas (C) stands during a press conference on December 12, 2013 in Barcelona announcing that political parties in Catalonia agreed to hold a referendum on independence for the northeastern Spanish region on November 9, 2014 (AFP Photo / STR)

Head of the Catalunyan regional government Artur Mas (C) stands during a press conference on December 12, 2013 in Barcelona announcing that political parties in Catalonia agreed to hold a referendum on independence for the northeastern Spanish region on November 9, 2014 (AFP Photo / STR)

 

The Catalan regional parliament has set November next year for a referendum on the Spanish province’s independence. The government in Madrid blandly said the vote won’t happen, but activists wonder how it might be stopped.

Catalonia’s four pro-independence parties, which hold a majority in the regional parliament, announced Thursday that the rich industrial Spanish province will hold a referendum on whether to gain greater autonomy or even total independence from the country’s central government.

The vote’s preliminary date is November 9, Catalan regional government head Artur Mas said. The people will be asked two questions: “Do you want Catalonia to be a state?” and “Do you want that state to be independent?”

The former question was added for those Catalans who seek to change Spain into a federation, with Catalonia forming part of it. According to a Metroscopia poll in newspaper El Pais last month, 46 percent of Catalans favor separatism versus 42 percent who wish to remain within Spain. The support for greater autonomy, however, is very strong.

Just minutes after the announcement Spanish Justice Minister Alberto Ruiz-Gallardon rejected the idea, saying it would be unconstitutional.

“The vote will not be held,” he said.

Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy spoke out later in the day, saying his government will not allow the Catalan referendum to happen.

 

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Catalonia sets date for independence referendum, but Madrid vows to block it

Catalan parties agree wording of proposed November 2014 referendum but Spanish government says it will not allow vote
Artur Mas

Artur Mas announceas that political parties in Catalonia have agreed to hold a referendum on independence next November. Photograph: Josep Lago/AFP/Getty Images

Separatist parties in Spain‘s north-eastern Catalonia region on Thursday agreed the wording of an independence referendum proposed for November 2014 but the Spanish government immediately said the vote was illegal and would not happen.

The Catalan regional government head, Artur Mas, said the vote would ask two questions: “Do you want Catalonia to be a state?” and: “Do you want that state to be independent?”

Spain’s justice minister, Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón, immediately said the vote could not take place because the constitution would not allow it.

 

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Airplane landing

Thinkstock / Photodisc

European and Spanish health officials released new details today about a Spanish woman who is hospitalized with a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection after visiting Hajj holy sites in Saudi Arabia, plus efforts under way to identify those who flew with her from Jeddah to Madrid.

The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) said today in an updated risk assessment that the 61-year-old woman with no known underlying health conditions was in Saudi Arabia from Oct 2 to Nov 1. She visited Medina, then Mecca and had no known contact with animals.

Her symptoms began Oct 15 with cough and fever, and she was seen at a hospital emergency department of a Mecca hospital on Oct 28 and 29, where health workers diagnosed her as having pneumonia, based on chest x-ray findings.

Spain’s health ministry told CIDRAP News that it has relayed more details about the case to European health authorities, including that the woman refused to be hospitalized in Saudi Arabia and was hospitalized in Madrid on Nov 1 when she arrived back in Spain.

According to the ECDC, the patient was sick during the flight and needed oxygen treatment while she was aboard.

The health ministry said she was in Medina from Oct 2 through Oct 10 and in Mecca from Oct 11 through Nov 1.

The patient is still listed in stable condition and has not required intensive care, according to the health ministry.  She was placed in a private room on Nov 1, and her medical team instituted respiratory isolation measures on Nov 4 when they suspected the woman was infected with MERS-CoV.

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Nov 06, 2013

Spain’s health ministry today reported the country’s first Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) case, in a woman who had spent October in Saudi Arabia, a development that raises questions about possible exposure at the recent Hajj pilgrimage.

The woman is a Spanish resident who was born in Morocco and was admitted to a Madrid hospital on Nov 1, where she is in stable condition, according to a health ministry statement posted in Spanish. The virus was confirmed in samples tested at the country’s National Microbiology Center.

Spain’s health ministry said it considers the infection an imported case that doesn’t pose a public health risk to Spain, which is now the fifth European country to report an imported MERS-CoV case, in addition to Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. All of the imported infections occurred in people who had recently traveled to Saudi Arabia or other Middle Eastern countries.

A World Health Organization (WHO) official told the Canadian Press today that the woman with MERS-CoV performed the Hajj pilgrimage, got sick in Saudi Arabia, and flew back to Spain where she was hospitalized and tested. Anthony Mounts, MD, the WHO’s technical lead for MERS-CoV, said it’s not clear yet if the woman took a commercial flight or came back on a charter plane, according to the story.

Spain’s health ministry said it and Madrid health officials are identifying all of the woman’s close contacts, based on national and international procedures.

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Britain told social inequality has created ‘public health timebomb’

Child poverty

In Britain one child in four lives in poverty, the report says. Photograph: Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

Women and children in the UK would have longer and healthier lives if they lived in Cyprus, Italy or Spain, and Britain is facing “a public health timebomb”, according to a study by an expert on inequality and health.

Sir Michael Marmot, who is known worldwide for his work on the social determinants of health, says much of the rest of Europe takes better care of its families. Life expectancy for women and death rates among the under-fives are worse in the UK, where there is also more child poverty.

The public health time bomb Marmot describes is caused by the large number of so-called Neets – young adults who are not in education, employment or training.

Women in the UK can expect to live to 83, but those born in a number of other European countries will live to a riper old age: in Germany and Cyprus, their life expectancy is 84, while in Italy, France and Spain it is 85.

And while child mortality rates in global terms are low in the UK, at 5.4 deaths per 1,000 among the under-fives, many countries do better. Some of those are in eastern Europe, such as the Czech Republic, with 3.4 deaths per 1,000 births, and Slovenia with three. Most countries in western Europe do better than the UK. Greece has four deaths per 1,000 births and Luxembourg has three. Iceland has the lowest child mortality, at 2.2 deaths per 1,000 live births, and Finland is next best, with 2.9.

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World Health Organization: unemployed youth in Britain are a public health time bomb

Young people, children and women in the UK are being failed by Government health policies, an international review finds

“Unemployment may be falling in the UK, but persistent high levels of the number of young people over 18 not in employment, education or training is storing up a public health time bomb waiting to explode,” said Professor Sir Michael Marmont, who chaired the study.

“We are failing too many of our children, women and young people on a grand scale.

 

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Spain’s public prosecutor has opened a preliminary inquiry into allegations that the US spy agency has conducted illegal surveillance operations on millions of Spanish citizens.

Spain’s Attorney General Eduardo Torres-Dulce called for an information gathering process to determine whether a crime was committed and if Spain should consider opening a formal investigation, his office said in a statement on Tuesday.

The public prosecutor’s office said it would “determine the reality of the facts and their circumstances” on whether the alleged large-scale spying on Spanish citizens could involve criminal aspects and evaluate their eventual penal consequences.

The statement comes a day after the Spanish Foreign Ministry summoned American Ambassador James Costos regarding media reports that the US National Security Agency (NSA) had spied on 60 million Spanish telephone calls in a single month.

Spain has warned that mutual trust between Madrid and Washington could be broken if the allegations prove to be true.

Several other countries have also summoned US ambassadors to explain the NSA spying activities.

European countries announced they will send a nine-member delegation to Washington to seek answers to US’ massive spying activities on telephone and online communications of citizens and more than 35 world leaders, including German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

This is while Germany and Brazil are spearheading efforts to draft a resolution at the United Nations General Assembly to condemn US spying on other countries. The measure is gaining international support as 21 countries including France and Mexico have so far joined talks to hammer out the resolution.

GMA/PR/SS

 

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Spain announces inquiry into alleged surveillance of citizens by NSA

Inquiry to determine whether surveillance of private phone calls and emails by NSA could be prosecuted under Spanish law

 

 

spain launch inquiry alleged surveillance nsa

A Spanish citizen protests alleged surveillance by the US National Security Agency. Photograph: Vallejo/ vallejo/Demotix/Corbis

 

Spain‘s public prosecutor’s office announced on Tuesday that it had launched a preliminary inquiry into the alleged widespread surveillance of Spanish citizens’ private phone calls and emails by the US National Security Agency, to determine whether it could be prosecuted under Spanish law.

It was reported on Monday that the NSA had monitored 60.5m Spanish phone calls in the space of one month alone, in the latest revelations from the documents leaked by the US whistleblower Edward Snowden.

The attorney general, Eduardo Torres-Dulce, issued a statement saying that, having seen the media reports “about a possible interception and irregular access to telephonic and/or electronic metadata … by foreign official services” it would determine the exact nature of any potential crime and whether this could be punished under Spanish law.

The outcry comes days after it emerged that the NSA spied on the phone calls of scores of allies, including the personal phone of the German chancellor, Angela Merkel.

 

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European spy services shared phone data with US in many cases: NSA chief

 

AFPOct 30, 2013, 02.48AM IST

WASHINGTON: US espionage chiefs hit back on Tuesday in a row over mass spying, saying reports that American eavesdroppers scooped up millions of phone records in Europe, were “completely false.”

In a stunning twist to the transatlantic spying storm, General Keith Alexander, head of the National Security Agency, said that in many cases European spy agencies had accessed phone records and shared them with the NSA.

The revelations came as a senior official said President Barack Obama was considering banning US spies from tapping the telephones of allied leaders, in the wake of German outrage over alleged snooping on Chancellor Angela Merkel’s communications.

America’s European allies have spent days angrily protesting after newspaper reports, based on leaks from fugitive analyst Edward Snowden, that Washington collected tens of millions of telephone calls and online communications in Europe as part as a vast anti terror sweep.

But two top spy agency chiefs testifying before Congress said the reports were based on a misunderstanding of information passed by Snowden to European newspapers.

“The assertions by reporters in France, Spain, Italy that NSA collected tens of millions of phone calls are completely false,” Alexander told the House Intelligence Committee.

“To be perfectly clear, this is not information that we collected on European citizens,” he said.

Hours earlier, the Wall Street Journal reported that electronic spying was carried out by the intelligence agencies of France and Spain — outside their own borders and sometimes in war zones — and was then passed onto the NSA.

The claims, if true, could embarrass European governments which have vehemently protested to the United States about alleged overreaching and infringments on the privacy of its citizens by the NSA.

Alexander said journalists had misinterpreted leaked data about the alleged spying operations.

“They cite as evidence screen shots of the results of a web tool used for data management purposes, but both they and the person who stole the classified data did not understand what they were looking at,” he said.

Dianne Feinstein, chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee, backed up claims that the European media reports were wrong.

“This was not the United States collecting on France and Germany. This was France and Germany collecting. And it had nothing to do with their citizens, it had to do with collecting in NATO areas of war, like Afghanistan,” she said.

There was no immediate comment from the spy agencies in the European countries mentioned.

 

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Spain colluded in NSA spying on its citizens, Spanish newspaper reports

El Mundo says it has document detailing collaboration between US intelligence agency and foreign countries

A man protests against NSA spying outside the foreign ministry in Madrid. Photograph: Juan Medina/Reuters

The widespread surveillance of Spanish citizens by the US National Security Agency, which caused outrage when it was reported this week, was the product of a collaboration with Spain‘s intelligence services, according to one Spanish newspaper.

In the latest revelations to emerge from the documents leaked by the US whistleblower Edward Snowden, Spanish agents not only knew about the work of the NSA but also facilitated it, El Mundo reports.

An NSA document entitled “Sharing computer network operations cryptologic information with foreign partners” reportedly shows how the US relies on the collaboration of many countries to give it access to intelligence information, including electronic metadata.

According to the document seen by El Mundo, the US classifies cooperation with various countries on four different levels. In the first group – “Comprehensive Cooperation” – are the UK, Australia, Canada and New Zealand. The second group – “Focused Cooperation” – of which Spain is a member, includes 19 countries, all of them European, apart from Japan and South Korea. The third group – “Limited cooperation” – consists of countries such as France, Israel, India and Pakistan; while the fourth – “Exceptional Cooperation” – is made up of countries that the US considers to be hostile to its interests.

The reports come a day after the director of the NSA, General Keith B Alexander, testified before the US house intelligence committee that suggestions the agency monitored millions of calls in Spain, France and Italy were “completely false” and that this data had been at least partially collected by the intelligence services of those countries and then passed on to the NSA.

 

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