Tag Archive: Research


Jan 7, 2014 by MICHAEL FORRESTER

Emotions coordinate our behavior and physiological states during survival-salient events and pleasurable interactions. Even though we are often consciously aware of our current emotional state, such as anger or happiness, the mechanisms giving rise to these subjective sensations have remained unresolved. Brilliant research by Finnish scientists has mapped the areas of our body that are experiencing an increase or decrease in sensory activity when we experience a particular emotion.

emotions In a new study, Finnish researchers have published visualizations describing how human emotions affect the body.  PNAS

Depending on whether we are happy, sad or angry, we have physiological sensations that are not located in different areas of the body. We overlook this reality from one day to the next (the famous “lump in the breast” generated by anxiety, the feeling of warmth that pervades our face and our cheeks particularly when we feel the shame…), and do not consciously realize how much the location of these body areas activated by our emotions and how they vary considerably depending on the nature of the emotion.

Researchers around the world are slowly integrating research on how our energetic and emotional states cause health and/or disease. How we connect emotionally to our overall wellness and wellbeing may indeed be more relevant than any supplement, food, exercise, medical intervention or health treatment.

Finnish scientists have for the first time mapped areas of the body activated according to each emotion (happiness, sadness, anger, etc). This map was compiled following a study of 700 Finnish, Swedish and Taiwanese volunteers.

They used a topographical self-report tool to reveal that different emotional states are associated with topographically distinct and culturally universal bodily sensations; these sensations could underlie conscious emotional experiences. Monitoring the topography of emotion-triggered bodily sensations brings forth a unique tool for emotion research and could even provide a biomarker for emotional disorders.

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 7 February, 2013 

MessageToEagle.com – Is what you eat playing a role in how much you sleep?

Researchers say: yes!

For the first time that Certain nutrients may play an underlying role in short and long sleep duration and that people who report eating a large variety of foods — an indicator of an overall healthy diet — had the healthiest sleep patterns, according to new results obtained by researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Sleep, like nutrition and physical activity, is a critical determinant of health and well-being. With the increasing prevalence of obesity and its consequences, sleep researchers have begun to explore the factors that predispose individuals to weight gain and ultimately obesity.


“Although many of us inherently recognize that there is a relationship between what we eat and how we sleep, there have been very few scientific studies that have explored this connection, especially in a real-world situation,” said Michael A. Grandner, PhD, instructor in Psychiatry and member of the Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology at Penn. ”

In general, we know that those who report between 7 — 8 hours of sleep each night are most likely to experience better overall health and well being, so we simply asked the question “Are there differences in the diet of those who report shorter sleep, longer sleep, or standard sleep patterns?”

For the current study, researchers used the survey question regarding how much sleep each participant reported getting each night to separate the sample into groups of different sleep patterns.

Sleep patterns were broken out as “Very Short” (<5 h per night), ”Short” (5-6 h per night), ”Standard’ (7-8h per night), and ”Long” (9 h or more per night). NHANES participants also sat down with specially trained staff who went over, in great detail, a full day’s dietary intake.

This included everything from the occasional glass of water to complete, detailed records of every part of each meal. With this data, the Penn research team analyzed whether each group differed from the 7-8 hour “standard” group on any nutrients and total caloric intake.

 

Read Full Article Here

28 January, 2013 

MessageToEagle.com – The fiber that spiders spin — weight for weight — are at least five times as strong as piano wire.

Now, scientists are able to unravel the mystery.

They have found a way to obtain a wide variety of elastic properties of the silk of several intact spiders’ webs using a sophisticated but non-invasive laser light scattering technique.

“Spider silk has a unique combination of mechanical strength and elasticity that make it one of the toughest materials we know,” said Professor Jeffery Yarger of ASU’s Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and lead researcher of the study.


Click on image to enlargeFemale Nephila clavipes on her web. The web was characterized using Brillouin spectroscopy to directly and non-invasively determine the mechanical properties. (Credit: Jeffery Yarger)
“This work represents the most complete understanding we have of the underlying mechanical properties of spider silks.”

Spider silk is an exceptional biological polymer, related to collagen (the stuff of skin and bones) but much more complex in its structure. The ASU team of chemists is studying its molecular structure in an effort to produce materials ranging from bulletproof vests to artificial tendons.

The extensive array of elastic and mechanical properties of spider silks in situ, obtained by the ASU team, is the first of its kind and will greatly facilitate future modeling efforts aimed at understanding the interplay of the mechanical properties and the molecular structure of silk used to produce spider webs.

Read Full Article Here

Richard A. Fuchs
DW.de
Thu, 24 Jan 2013 11:30 CST

The Celts were long considered a barbaric and violent society. But new findings from a 2,600-year-old grave in Germany suggest the ancient people were much more sophisticated than previously thought. The little Bettelbühl stream on the Danube River was completely unknown, except to local residents. But that changed in the summer of 2010 when a spectacular discovery was made just next to the creek.

Not far from the Heuneburg, the site of an early Celtic settlement, researchers stumbled upon the elaborate grave of a Celtic princess. In addition to gold and amber, they found a subterranean burial chamber fitted with massive oak beams. It was an archeological sensation that, after 2,600 years, the chamber was completely intact.

The wooden construction was preserved by the constant flow of water from the Bettelbühl stream. “In dry ground, the wood wouldn’t have had a chance to survive over so many centuries,” said Nicole Ebinger-Rist, the director of the research project handling the find.

A life of luxury?

Since the rings in the wood allow them to date the other items in the burial chamber, researchers are now hoping to gain a new understanding of Celtic culture and history

The result could change our view of the Celts. Roman writers in particular described the heterogeneous people as barbaric, only excelling in violence and war. But that’s a distorted view, according to Dirk L. Krausse from Baden-Wurttemberg’s state office for historic preservation.

“There’s also a bit of propaganda involved, since the Celts conquered Rome in the year 387 B.C., so they couldn’t have been so primitive,” Krausse explained. The findings at the Heuneburg near Hundersingen also indicate that the Celts living in the upper Danube region were more advanced than previously thought.

 

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Synthetic Folic Acid May Contribute to Colorectal Cancer

In more evidence that messing with nature can have negative health consequences, a new study from Seattle’s Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has confirmed that synthetic folic acid supplementation may increase the risk of colorectal cancer.

This conclusion was determined using the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, which included 88,045 postmenopausal women who were tested and studied between 1993-1998, just following the mandated folic acid supplementation requirement in the United States.

Most of the folate supplementation to foods utilizes synthetic folic acid, rather than nature’s molecule, referred to as folate (though many incorrectly refer to folic acid as folate).

The research found 1,003 colorectal cancer incidences among the study population as of 2009. When nutrient consumption was analyzed, the researchers found that those women in the top quarter of folic acid consumption had higher incidence of colorectal cancer between three an nine years after the folic acid mandate.

The researchers could not determine whether the cause was too much supplementation or due to the supplement being the synthetic form of the nutrient. The two are indelibly tied, however, because a healthy diet that supplies the natural form of folate has been connected with reduced cancer incidence.

Other research has found that high supplementation of synthetic folic acid can increase malignant tumor proliferation and increase cancer risk in general.

 

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Dementia risk linked to feelings of loneliness, not lack of social ties

dementia

 

by: David Gutierrez, staff writer

(NaturalNews) Studies have linked factors such as living alone or a lack of social connections to an increased risk of dementia. But according to a study published in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, it is actually feelings of loneliness, rather than any of these objective external factors, that are associated with greater risk.

“These results suggest that feelings of loneliness independently contribute to the risk of dementia in later life,” the researchers wrote.

Well-established risk factors for dementia include advanced age, depression, impaired cognition, and certain genetic profiles and underlying medical conditions, the researchers noted. But few studies have been conducted to carefully examine the effects of social isolation. Yet with both the aging population and the number of people living alone increasing they said, understanding the relationship between dementia and isolation may be of great importance.

Measuring “social isolation”

The researchers tracked more than 2,000 participants in the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL) for three years. All participants were living independently and had no signs of dementia at the study’s start. The researchers noted whether participants lived alone, whether they had social support, whether they had a partner or spouse, and whether they felt lonely. They found that 75 percent of participants said they had no social support, 46 percent lived alone, just under 50 percent were single and just under 20 percent felt lonely.

Three years later, participants were asked about their physical health, their ability to perform daily tasks, and whether they felt lonely. They also completed tests to assess their mental health and well-being, and to evaluate them for symptoms of dementia.

Upon first analysis, the researchers found no difference in dementia risk between those who were single and those who were married. But living alone, a lack of social support, and feelings of loneliness were all correlated with a higher risk.

After examining the different variables for potential interference with each other, the researchers concluded that people who lived alone were 70 to 80 percent more likely to develop dementia than people who lived with others. The same increase in risk was seen in people who were single when compared with those who were married or partnered. People who reported feelings of loneliness were an astonishing 150 percent more likely to develop dementia than people who did not report loneliness. These effects were seen equally in men and in women.

But when the researchers adjusted for potential confounding factors, such as age, suddenly none of the objective measures of social isolation (living alone, partnered status or lack of social support) made any contribution to dementia risk.

In contrast, people who felt lonely were still 64 percent more likely to develop dementia than people who did not.

“Interestingly, the fact that ‘feeling lonely’ rather than ‘being alone’ was associated with dementia onset suggests that it is not the objective situation, but, rather, the perceived absence of social attachments that increases the risk of cognitive decline,” the researchers wrote.

Sources:

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-12/bmj-fll120712.php

Crossroads News : Changes In The World Around Us And Our Place In It

English: Aerial view of Presque Isle State Par...

English: Aerial view of Presque Isle State Park on Lake Erie near Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. View is to the east-northeast. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers built 55 off-shore segmented breakwaters to prevent the beach erosion problem at Presque Isle State Park that caused the loss of this important recreational site and environmental habitat for wildlife. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Study to Identify Levels of Sucralose in Erie Beach Waters

ScienceDaily

Faculty and student researchers at Mercyhurst University continue to investigate the presence of potentially harmful chemicals in the beach waters of Presque Isle State Park and have added a new one to their list: sucralose. A chlorinated form of sucrose found in artificial sweeteners, sucralose is used in an estimated 4,500 products ranging from Halloween candies to diet sodas.


Studies suggest that approximately 95 percent of ingested sucralose is not metabolized by the body and is excreted into the water supply, said Dr. Amy Parente, assistant professor of chemistry and biochemistry at Mercyhurst.

Many chlorinated compounds have been found to be toxic to humans and, while sucralose appears to have limited toxicity, the long-term effects of exposure have yet to be determined. Common practices aimed at removing contaminants from wastewater have not been shown to be successful at reducing levels of sucralose, Parente said.

Parente’s preliminary research has identified detectable levels of sucralose in local Lake Erie waters, which may pose concerns for the environment. She has received a grant from the Regional Science Consortium at the Tom Ridge Environmental Center to confirm these levels, with the ultimate goal of understanding the impact on the local aquatic ecosystem.

Sucralose in the water can have repercussions like altered water taste and biological health effects, she said. Another problem is that sucralose in the environment can provide a false signal for nutrient availability so organisms feeling that their food supply is adequate show decreased foraging behavior, which can ultimately affect their ability to survive.

Five undergraduate students are assisting in the research project. They are Erin Cox, Juliane Harmon, Michael Gigliotti, Gregg Robbins-Welty and Kristen Vidmar.

Health And Wellness Report

The Human Mind- Children – Medical Research

 

Image : Creative Commons http://www.aspergersphere.com

 

Researchers Investigate Aggression Among Kindergartners

ScienceDaily (Sep. 27, 2012) — Not all aggressive children are aggressive for the same reasons, according to Penn State researchers, who found that some kindergartners who are aggressive show low verbal abilities while others are more easily physiologically aroused. The findings suggest that different types of treatments may be needed to help kids with different underlying causes for problem behavior.


“Aggressive responses to being frustrated are a normal part of early childhood, but children are increasingly expected to manage their emotions and control their behavior when they enter school,” said Lisa Gatzke-Kopp, assistant professor of human development and family studies. “Kids who don’t do this well, who hit their classmates when they are frustrated or cause other types of disturbances in the classroom, are at especially high risk for long-term consequences including delinquency, violence, dropping out of school, abusing substances and even suicide. Research tells us that the earlier we can intervene, the better the chances of getting these children back on track.”

Gatzke-Kopp and her colleagues, who include Mark Greenberg, professor of human development and family studies and of psychology, asked each of the kindergarten teachers in all 10 of the elementary schools in Pennsylvania’s Harrisburg School District to rate the aggressive behaviors of their students on a six-point scale with items such as “gets in many fights” and “cruelty, bullying or meanness to others.” Using these data, the team recruited a group of high-risk children (207 children) and a group of low-risk children (132 children) to undergo a range of neurobiological measures aimed at understanding how aggressive children experience and manage emotions differently than their non-aggressive classmates.

The team assessed all of the children’s cognitive and academic skills using standardized tests that identified the children’s developmental level of vocabulary, spatial reasoning and memory. In addition, the team asked teachers to provide ratings of each child’s behaviors, including their levels of aggression, disobedience and sadness, as well as their social skills and level of self-control in the classroom.

The researchers also assessed the children’s brain functioning using a mobile research laboratory they brought to the schools. Within the mobile lab, the team measured the children’s heart rate and skin conductance activity during tasks designed to elicit emotional responses, including showing the children short video clips of a cartoon character in a variety of situations depicting fear, sadness, happiness and anger. The researchers wanted to understand how emotional and physical arousal to different types of emotions differed between children who engage in aggressive behavior and children who don’t engage in aggressive behavior, as well as how different children who engage in aggressive behavior react.

According to Gatzke-Kopp, the assessments enabled the researchers to understand how cognitive and emotional processing may contribute to the development of aggressive tendencies. Specifically, the team found that 90 percent of the aggressive kids in the study could be characterized as either low in verbal ability or more easily physiologically aroused. The results will appear in the August 2012 issue of Development and Psychopathology.

“What we may be seeing is that there are at least two different routes through which a child may act aggressively,” Gatzke-Kopp said. “Because these are very different processes, these children may need different approaches to changing their behavior.”

The first group of kids was characterized by lower verbal ability, lower levels of cognitive functioning and fewer executive function skills.

According to Gatzke-Kopp, children need verbal skills to understand the feelings of others and guidance from adults, and to express feelings without hitting. They also need adequate cognitive and executive-function abilities to manipulate information and to think of alternatives to hitting and fighting.

“This group of kids may be functioning at a cognitive level that is more akin to a preschooler than a kindergartner,” Gatzke-Kopp said. “They have a harder time extracting what other people are feeling. They don’t have a nuanced sense of emotions; everything is either happy or sad to them. So they might not be as good at recognizing how their behavior is making another child feel. They may literally have a hard time ‘using their words,’ so hitting becomes an easier solution when they are frustrated.”

The second group of kids had good verbal and cognitive functioning, but they were more physiologically aroused. They were more emotionally reactive, and tended to have more stressors in their lives.

“These children may be able to tell you that if somebody pushed them on the playground they would go get a teacher, but the push happens and they kind of lose it and it doesn’t matter what they should do, they just act on impulse,” Greenberg said. “One possibility is that the threshold for managing frustration is quite low for these kids. So what we might consider a minor annoyance to them is a major threat. When they are calm they function very well, but when they lose control of their emotions, they can’t control their behavior.”

In the future, the team plans to examine how these different types of children respond to an intervention delivered over the second half of kindergarten and the first half of first grade.

The Pennsylvania Department of Health funded this research. Other authors of the paper include Christine Fortunato, postdoctoral fellow, and Michael Coccia, statistical consultant, both in the Penn State Prevention Research Center for the Promotion of Human Development.

Health And Wellness Report

Holistic Health :  Diseases- Chemicals

Floors that Can Make You and Your Children Sick

play-mat floors health risks

By Dr. Mercola

You’ve probably given careful consideration to the food your children consume on a daily basis. But what about the other environmental influences they’re exposed to on a near 24/7 basis, such as the materials in their living space and, more specifically, your flooring?

It is likely no one in your home is more familiar with your floor than young children or toddlers living there, as this is where they spend a good deal of time – exploring, playing and learning the ropes of life.

As they crawl, their hands (that will later end up in their mouths) sweep across the surface, and their faces are in close proximity to the material itself, and any emissions that have accumulated in household dust.

Toxic chemicals, including some that are so dangerous to children they have been banned from toys, are widely used in popular flooring materials, and new research shows that these chemicals can be taken up by infants’ bodies as they crawl along on the floor.

Serious Risks from PVC Flooring Revealed

If your home contains soft, flexible plastic flooring, such as vinyl or those padded play-mat floors for kids (often used in day cares and kindergartens, too), there’s a good chance it is made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC). One of the main problems with PVC is that it contains phthalates, or “plasticizers,” which are a group of industrial chemicals used to make plastics like PVC more flexible and resilient.

They’re also one of the most pervasive endocrine disrupters so far discovered. A new study conducted by Swedish researchers found levels of certain phthalates were higher in the urine of babies that had PVC flooring on their bedroom floor.1

Researchers concluded:

“The findings indicate that the use of soft PVC as flooring material may increase the human uptake of phthalates in infants. Urinary levels of phthalate metabolites during early life are associated with the use of PVC flooring in the bedroom, body area, and the use of infant formula.

This study shows that the uptake of phthalates is not only related to oral uptake from, for example, food but also to environmental factors such as building materials. This new information should be considered when designing indoor environments, especially for children.”

This is not the first time PVC flooring has made headlines. Past research has linked it to increased levels of phthalates in household dust, which in turn is linked to chronic health conditions like allergies and asthma. One study also found that infants who lived in bedrooms with vinyl floors were twice as likely to have autism as infants with wood flooring.2

What You Need to Know About PVC Flooring Chemicals

Along with common uses in PVC flooring, phthalates are also commonly found in toys, food packaging, shower curtains, plastic medical equipment, household cleaners, cosmetics and personal care products.

According to a report by Environment and Human Health, Inc. (EHHI), studies have shown women of childbearing age have significantly higher phthalate exposures than other adults (could this be because they also use the most cosmetics?), and the chemical has been detected in 100 percent of pregnant women tested.3 It’s known that fetal exposure to phthalates is closely related to maternal exposure, so many, if not all, babies are starting out with exposure in the womb.

In childhood, children are further exposed to phthalates in consumer products ranging from toys, pacifiers and food packaging to personal care products and crawling on vinyl flooring. The chemicals are known to be a major source of indoor air pollution as well, as they are emitted from numerous household goods, including not only flooring but also furniture, upholstery, mattresses and wall coverings.

Phthalates have even been detected in infant formula and baby food, likely because they migrated from the packaging materials. This likely explains why the Swedish researchers found that certain phthalate levels were lower in 2-month-old babies if they were exclusively breastfed, with no supplements.

It’s alarming that children are being exposed to so many phthalates, from so many sources, as these are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that have been linked to a wide range of developmental and reproductive “gender-bending” effects, including:

Disturbed lactation Decreased dysgenesis syndrome: A syndrome involving cryptorchidism (undescended testicles), hypospadias (birth defect in which opening of urethra is on the underside of the penis instead of at the end), and oligospermia (low sperm count), and testicular cancer
Interference with sexual differentiation in utero Enlarged prostate glands
Impaired ovulatory cycles and polycystic ovary disease (PCOS) Numerous hormonal disruptions
Early or delayed puberty Breast cancer and uterine fibroids

Why Premature Babies May be Most at Risk

The sad truth is that most babies are likely starting off with a toxic chemical load due to their mom’s chemical burden. However, premature babies get a particularly rough start due to the high concentrations of phthalates they’re exposed to in the plastic medical equipment used during neonatal intensive care. With each plastic tube that a newborn is hooked up to, the rate of phthalate exposure increases. And for those premature infants who spend weeks and months in the neonatal intensive care unit, the exposure levels can be extraordinary.

As the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned, DEHP can be found in:4

IV tubing and IV bags Nasogastric tubes
Umbilical artery catheters Tubing used in cardiopulmonary bypass procedures (CPB)
Blood bags and infusion tubing Ventilator tubing
Enteral nutrition feeding bags Tubing used during hemodialysis

In fact, these medical devices can contain 20 to 40 percent Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP, a type of phthalate) by weight – and IV tubing can contain up to 80 percent! DEHP is not bound to the vinyl. It readily leaches out of these medical devices (the tubing or bag) into the solutions that come into contact with the plastic, where it then goes directly into you or your child.

The degree of this leaching depends on the temperature, the lipid content of the solution, agitation of the solution, and the duration of its contact with the plastic (i.e., storage time). Of course, the more medical procedures your child requires, the higher the exposure to this chemical. So, babies who are seriously ill and hospitalized have the greatest risk of exposure, as well as being the most vulnerable to its effects.

EHHI found that male infants exposed to phthalates through medical procedures are most at risk of suffering health effects,5 which include excessive inflammation.

Inflammation is known to trigger a number of diseases in premature babies, including a chronic lung disorder known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and necrotizing enterocolitis, a serious intestinal condition. After their initial onslaught with chemicals in the hospital, they will then go home, where, unfortunately, the chemical exposure often continues.

12 Tips for Reducing Your Phthalate/PVC Exposure

Anything you can do to lower your, and your children’s, exposure to plasticizing chemicals like phthalates is a step in the right direction. Among them:

  1. Choose toys made from natural materials (or at least only buying those made from phthalate-free plastic).
  2. When redoing your home, look for “green,” toxin-free alternatives in lieu of regular paint and vinyl floor coverings.
  3. Replace your vinyl shower curtain with one made of fabric or better yet install glass shower doors.
  4. Switch over to natural brands of toiletries such as shampoo, toothpaste, and cosmetics.
  5. Check your home’s tap water for contaminants and filter the water if necessary. You may also want to use an alternative to PVC pipes for your water supply.
  6. Avoid using artificial air fresheners, dryer sheets, fabric softeners, scented candles or other synthetic fragrances and perfumes.
  7. Store your food and beverages in glass rather than plastic, and avoid using plastic wrap.
  8. Avoid processed foods (many are packaged in phthalate-containing packaging) and instead focus your diet on fresh, organic and locally grown whole foods.
  9. Breastfeed your baby exclusively if possible, for at least the first six months (as you will avoid phthalates exposure from infant formula packaging and plastic bottles/nipples).
  10. If you use baby bottles, use glass, not plastic.
  11. Use only natural cleaning products in your home.
  12. Teach your children not to drink water from the garden hose, as many are made with phthalate-containing plastics.
Mercola.com

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Crossroads News : Changes In The World Around Us And Our Place In It

Community  :  IT / Emergency Networks

Home Wi-Fi routers could operate as emergency network, say scientists

Researchers propose disaster ’emergency mode’

By John E Dunn, TechWorld

German researchers have proposed using home Wi-Fi routers as a backup mesh network in the event that cell and phone systems in cities and towns are overwhelmed during emergencies.

In a recently-published paper PDF, Kamill Panitzek and colleagues at the Technical University in Darmstadt in Germany describe how home routers could be linked to one another to form a huge informal backbone for use by fire, police and ambulance services.

REVIEW: Linksys routers get smart (except for ‘easy setup’)

Panitzek and his team tested the concept in the centre of Darmstadt by surveying the number, signal strength and location of routers using a sophisticated version of wardriving that was able to fix their coordinates with a high enough degree of accuracy to construct a hypothetical mesh.

The team found 1,971 routers, 212 of which had no encryption applied, and a further that used the obsolete WEP standard.

On the basis of the pattern of routers found, the team calculated that a resilient and sufficiently dense mesh network would be possible if a distance of around 30 metres between nodes was assumed.

One problem was that there were not enough open (i.e unsecured) routers which would require citizens to create an “emergency switch” mode to allow access to the number of nodes needed to create a viable mesh.

Most recent home routers can support such a system without modification as long as they allow for the creation of an open ‘guest’ network running in parallel to the user’s secured Wi-Fi access, that is firewalled from it.

“We found that with a communication range of 30 metres a mesh network could be easily constructed in urban areas like our hometown. The resulting networks showed to be resilient to node failures,” Panitzek said in the analysis.

The team accepts that there are some barriers to the idea beyond the mere density of routers available in a particular locality. Would users agree to have an open channel enabled on their routers?

A better idea might be for router makers to introduce an emergency mode into their products that users would know was fully secure, but the prospects of that look remote for now without legislation.

Mesh networks have been a buzz technology for some years and have found commercial applications. Arbua Networks launched a small meshing system for its own access points in 2011. Although a powerful idea, the technology remains on the fringes of development.