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Crossroads News : Changes In The World Around Us And Our Place In It

Environmental / Activism :  Preservation / Seas / Oceans

Environmentalists Stifled in Jeju, South Korea

By Christine Ahn Created: September 10, 2012 Last Updated: September 11, 2012


A coral reef near Jeju Isand, South Korea, is threatened by the construction of a naval base Christine Ahn writes. Photo from file. (Romeo Gacad/AFP/Getty Images)

A coral reef near Jeju Isand, South Korea, is threatened by the construction of a naval base Christine Ahn writes. Photo from file. (Romeo Gacad/AFP/Getty Images)

On Sept. 2, Dr. Imok Cha, a 51-year-old San Francisco-based pathologist boarded a plane headed to Jeju Island, South Korea, where she was to present new findings at the World Conservation Congress of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the world’s oldest and largest environmental organization.

Cha was a registered participant at the IUCN Congress, which is being held at Jeju’s Jungmun resort from Sept. 6 to 15. Approximately 8,000 conservationists are gathered there to discuss the world’s most pressing environmental challenges.

Yet just four miles away from where they meet, an environmental holocaust is taking place in Gangjeong Village, where the construction of a 120-acre naval base is threatening a 400-year-old farming and fishing village, one of the earth’s most spectacular soft coral reefs, and coastal habitats for several endangered species.

But Cha’s journey to the IUCN was cut short at Incheon International Airport where, much to her surprise, immigration officers apprehended and detained her, forced her to give finger and foot prints, and then promptly put her on the next plane back to the United States.

The South Korean government’s justification was that Cha had protested against the naval base in Washington, D.C., which she hadn’t—and even if she had, how can civil disobedience justify deportation?

The real reason they were preventing Cha from entering Korea was what she was carrying in her bag: findings from an independent environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the naval base construction that contradicted the ROK Navy’s EIA, which ignored three critically endangered species and impacts on rare coral reefs.

The independent EIA was conducted by a team of environmental scientists to assess the veracity of the navy’s EIA. One biologist with Endangered Species International assessed how three endangered species—the estuary crab, freshwater shrimp, and boreal digging frog—were faring since their relocation.

In the case of the endangered frog, the biologist found that “most of adult frogs have been probably killed or some will try to come back to the navy site to breed again but will find themselves lost and nowhere else to go.” He wrote from Jeju, “They let them be crushed and killed.”

Another team comprised of local, national, and international coral experts conducted several dives near the proposed base site, which is approximately 0.15 miles from the Tiger Isle UNESCO Biosphere Reserve buffer zone. Contrary to the navy’s assessment, they concluded, “Construction of the Gangjeong Naval Base will cause immediate death to thousands of endangered coral species by being crushed or smothered with sedimentation.”

Cha isn’t the only one being blocked from participating in the IUCN Congress. The IUCN, the world’s largest conservation organization, has succumbed to the South Korean government’s mandate to quell social unrest and resistance to the base by excluding voices of dissent at the summit. The IUCN had promised Gangjeong villagers an informational booth, but just last week, IUCN Global Director Enrique J. Lahmann sent a denial email with no explanation.

This was soon followed by an official IUCN statement that said, “IUCN has consistently supported the application of the Gangjeong Village Committee to have an exhibition stand at the Congress. Unfortunately our recommendation was not endorsed by our on-site partners.” One listed partner is Samsung, one of the very corporations contracted by the government to build the military base.

The Korean government has banned demonstrations within a mile of the convention, ensuring that any critical dissent against the base is kept out.

The Jeju naval base will not only devastate ecosystems and sustainable livelihoods in Gangjeong. It will also play a central role in the militarized race for natural resources in the Asia-Pacific.

The Jeju Naval Base will stage the South Korean Maritime Task Flotilla 7, which includes AEGIS-equipped destroyers connected to the U.S. missile defense system. Seoul argues that the flotilla is needed to protect its trade routes in an increasingly tense region where countries are vying for access to natural resources in the South China Sea.

South Korea, among the most energy intensive economies in the OECD, is highly trade reliant—95 percent of its energy and industrial raw materials are imported from overseas. Because of the ongoing Korean War and division of the peninsula, 99.7 percent of South Korea’s trade is conducted via sea routes.

Anders Riel Müller of the Institute for Food and Development Policy says, “The government has decided to sustain its economic growth by heavily investing in securing overseas oil fields, mines, and food resources.”

Instead of seeking more sustainable alternatives, such as investing in renewable energy or a domestic agricultural system, Seoul has chosen a militarized path—a very costly one, not just in terms of the drain it will put on dwindling public coffers, but also on its relatively young and fragile democracy.

Not only have the government and police arrested and beaten Gangjeong villagers trying to protect their treasured natural resources, the Lee Myung-bak administration has decided it will do anything to prevent any voice of dissent from stopping this naval base, including deporting concerned internationals like Cha. She is now the 19th foreigner to be denied entry over the naval base, including three American veterans who served in Korea, and most recently three Okinawans on their way to the IUCN summit.

The challenges facing all of us—climate change, rising food prices, and declining sources of fossil energy—urgently demand cooperation among nations. Unless we learn to share the world’s natural resources and develop sustainable alternatives, governments will be perpetually preparing for war to secure access to finite natural resources.

At stake are not just the loss of endangered species or traditional livelihoods in Gangjeong, but also the severe violation of our human rights. Security interests may have blinded the South Korean government, but they should not silence the IUCN from taking a more principled stand to protect nature, traditional livelihoods, and free speech.

Christine Ahn is the executive director of the Korea Policy Institute and an advisory board member to the Save Jeju Island Global Campaign. Courtesy of Foreign Policy in Focus (fpif.org).



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Teetering on the edge: the world’s 100 most endangered species (photos)

Jeremy Hance

Only described in 2010, its unknown how many Durrell's vontsiras (Salanoia durrelli) survive. Photo by: Ian Vernon and Tim Hounsome with the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust.
Only described in 2010, its unknown how many Durrell’s vontsiras (Salanoia durrelli) survive. Photo by: Ian Vernon and Tim Hounsome with the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust.


From the Baishan fir (five left in the world) to the Sumatran rhino (around 250), a new report highlights the world’s top 100 most endangered species, according to the the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the Zoological Society of London (ZSL). The list spans the taxonomic gamut, from fungi (Cryptomyces maximus) to amphibians (the Table Mountain ghost frog) to flowers (the Cayman Islands ghost orchid) and much more (see full list at the end of the article).

“The species featured here represent the 100 most critically endangered species in the world,” announces the report. “If we don’t rapidly increase the amount of conservation attention that they receive they may soon be lost forever.”

Listed in alphabetical order, the report represents the best knowledge available on endangered species. While scientists to date have described nearly 2 million species on Earth, most believe several million (and perhaps tens-of-millions) remain undiscovered. In addition, scientists generally have far more data on the populations and threats facing vertebrate species, such as mammals and amphibians, than they do of insects, plants, and fungi. Still, these 100 near-extinct species highlights the increasing global biodiversity crisis, which could result in a mass extinction with untold consequences for the world’s ecosystems.

“All the species listed are unique and irreplaceable,” co-author Ellen Butcher with ZSL said in a statement. “If they vanish, no amount of money can bring them back. However, if we take immediate action we can give them a fighting chance for survival. But this requires society to support the moral and ethical position that all species have an inherent right to exist.”

While a few of these species have seen targeted conservation efforts, such as the Sumatran rhino and the saola, many lack any conservation efforts.

“The donor community and conservation movement are leaning increasingly towards a ‘what can nature do for us’ approach, where species and wild habitats are valued and prioritized according to the services they provide for people. This has made it increasingly difficult for conservationists to protect the most threatened species on the planet,” says ZSL’s Director of Conservation, Jonathan Baillie, and co-author of the report.

The report also highlights that targeted conservation efforts in the past has had numerous successes in keeping species from vanishing for good, such as Prezwalski’s horse, the humpback whale, and the black robin. Still the general trend outlined by scientists is a global decline in biodiversity.

“Society is at a point in history where a decision needs to be made,” Baillie writes in the report. “Do these species have the right to exist?”

Less than 250 great Indian bustards (Ardeotis nigriceps) survive. Photo by: Rahul Sachdev.
Less than 250 great Indian bustards (Ardeotis nigriceps) survive. Photo by: Rahul Sachdev.

Less than 800 Araripe manakins (Antilophia bokermanni) survive. Photo by: Ciro Albano.
Less than 800 Araripe manakins (Antilophia bokermanni) survive. Photo by: Ciro Albano.

This fungus, Cryptomyces maximus, is facing extinction. Photo by: David Harries.
This fungus, Cryptomyces maximus, is facing extinction. Photo by: David Harries.

Archey's frog (Leiopelma archeyii), native to New Zealand, is in big trouble. Photo by: New Zealand Department of Conservation.
Archey’s frog (Leiopelma archeyii), native to New Zealand, is in big trouble. Photo by: New Zealand Department of Conservation.

Amsterdam Island albatross (Diomedea-amsterdamensis), is down to only 100 birds. Albatrosses are among the world's most endangered birds. Photo by: Eric van der Vlist.
Amsterdam Island albatross (Diomedea-amsterdamensis), is down to only 100 birds. Albatrosses are among the world’s most endangered birds. Photo by: Eric van der Vlist.

About 250 Sumatran rhinos (Diceros sumatrensis) survive in a few different populations. Photo by: Save the Rhino International.
About 250 Sumatran rhinos (Diceros sumatrensis) survive in a few different populations. Photo by: Save the Rhino International.

Santa Catarina's guinea pig (Cavia intermedia) is down to about 40-60 animals. Photo by: Luciano Candisani.
Santa Catarina’s guinea pig (Cavia intermedia) is down to about 40-60 animals. Photo by: Luciano Candisani.

The geometric tortoise (Psammobates geometricus) has lost almost all of its habitat in South Africa. Photo by: Erik Baard.
The geometric tortoise (Psammobates geometricus) has lost almost all of its habitat in South Africa. Photo by: Erik Baard.

The Okinawa spiny rat (Tokudaia muenninki) is only found on the Japanese Island of Okinawa. Already, Japan has lost several of its endemic mammals. Photo by: Norihiro Kawauchi.
The Okinawa spiny rat (Tokudaia muenninki) is only found on the Japanese Island of Okinawa. Already, Japan has lost several of its endemic mammals. Photo by: Norihiro Kawauchi.

The Table Mountain ghost frog (Heleophryne rosei) is only found on a single mountain in South Africa. Photo by: Atherton de Villiers.
The Table Mountain ghost frog (Heleophryne rosei) is only found on a single mountain in South Africa. Photo by: Atherton de Villiers.

The red-crested tree rat (Santamartamys rufodorsalis) was discovered last year in Colombia after missing for over a century. Photo by: Lizzie Noble/Pro Aves.
The red-crested tree rat (Santamartamys rufodorsalis) was discovered last year in Colombia after missing for over a century. Photo by: Lizzie Noble/Pro Aves.

Scientific Name Common Name Category Population Threats to Survival Action Required
Abies beshanzuensis Baishan Fir Conifer 5 mature individuals Agricultural expansion and fireEx-situ conservation and re-introduction, and establishment of a protected area
Actinote zikani butterfly Unknown, one population remaining Habitat degradation due to pressure from human populationsProtection of habitat and Mikania obsoleta (host plant)
Aipysurus foliosquama Leaf scaled sea-snake sea-snake Unknown, two subpopulations remain Unknown – likely degradation of coral reef habitatEvaluate reasons for population decline and formulate appropriate management plans
Amanipodagrion gilliesi Amani Flatwing butterfly <500 individuals est. Habitat degradation due to increasing population pressure and water pollutionHabitat protection
Antilophia bokermanni Araripe Manakin bird 779 individuals (est 2010) abitat destruction due to expansion of agriculture and recreational facilities and water diversionFormal protection of remaining habitat and protection of springs and streams
Antisolabis seychellensis Seychelles earwig earwig Unknown (declining) Invasive species and climate changeHabitat management to prevent further invasion by introduced plants
Aphanius transgrediens freshwater fish Unknown (declining) Competition and predation by Gambusia and road construction Raise awareness in national conservation groups and governments, monitor and conserve current springs, develop action plan for lost springs and maintain captive populations
Aproteles bulmerae Bulmer’s Fruit Bat bat 150 individuals (est) Hunting and cave disturbanceProtection of Luplupwintern cave and enforced prohibition of hunting
Ardea insignis White bellied heron bird 70-400 individuals Habitat destruction and degradation due to hydropower development Develop captive rearing and release program, eliminate adverse uses of riverine habitat, and mitigate effects of hydroelectric development
Ardeotis nigriceps Great Indian Bustard bird 50 -249 mature individuals Habitat loss and modification due to agricultural developmentEstablishment of protected areas and community reserves, and realignment of Indira Ghandi Nahar Canal Project
Astrochelys yniphora Ploughshare tortoise / angonoka tortoise 440-770 Illegal collection for international pet tradeEnforcement of legal protection and protected area management
Atelopus balios Rio pescado stubfoot toad toad Unknown (declining) Chytridiomycosis and habitat destruction due to logging and agricultural expansionProtection of last remaining habitat
Aythya innotata Madagascar Pochard bird approximately 20 mature individuals Habitat degradation due to slash-and-burn agriculture, hunting, and fishing / introduced fishFormal protection of current breeding site, habitat restoration, and development of release programme for captive-bred individuals
Azurina eupalama Galapagos damsel fish pelagic fish Unknown (declining) Climate Change – oceanographic changes associated with the 1982 / 1983 El Nino are presumed to be responsible for the apparent disappearance of this species from the Galapagos Surveys to identify if the species still exists in Los Lobos Islands
Bahaba taipingensis Giant yellow croaker pelagic fish Unknown (declining) Over-fishing, primarily due to value of swim-bladder for traditional medicine – cost per kilogram exceeded that of gold in 2001Establishment of appropriate protection in Hong Kong and enforcement of legal protection in China
Batagur baska Common Batagur/ Four-toed terrapin turtle Unknown (declining) Illegal export and trade from Indonesia to China Enforcement of CITES Appendix I restrictions and control of illegal trade
Bazzania bhutanica liverwort Unknown (declining) Habitat degradation and destruction due to forest clearance, overgrazing and development Protection of area to prevent future development damaging remaining habitat
Beatragus hunteri Hirola antelope < 1000 individuals Habitat loss and degradation, competition with livestock, poachingEstablishment of protected areas and community conservancies, increase in level of management and protection of wild population
Bombus franklini Franklin’s Bumble Bee bee Unknown (declining) Disease from commercially bred bumblebees and habitat destruction and degradationProtection of habitat containing nectar and pollen sources
Brachyteles hypoxanthus Northern muriqui primate < 1,000 individuals Habitat loss and fragmentation due to large-scale deforestation and selective loggingHabitat protection and commitment of resources to support the implementation of the national action plan
Bradypus pygmaeus Pygmy sloth sloth <500 individuals Habitat loss due to illegal logging of mangrove forests for firewood and construction and hunting of the slothsEnforcement of protection of the Isla Escudo de Veraguas nature sanctuary and raising awareness
Callitriche pulchra freshwater plant Unknown (declining) Exploitation of the species’ habitat by stock, and modification of the pool by local peopleProvide alternative water sources for stock, involve local people in the protection of the pool and document remaining water bodies on Gavdos
Calumma tarzan Tarzan’s chameleon chameleon Unknown Habitat destruction for agricultureSupport for nascent community conservation initiatives and protection of habitat
Cavia intermedia Santa Catarina’s guinea pig guinea pig 40-60 individuals Habitat disturbance and possible hunting; small population effectsProtected area enforcement and regulation of access to the island
Cercopithecus roloway Roloway Guenon primate Unknown hunting for consumption as bushmeat, and habitat lossProtection of habitat from logging and conversion to agricultural land
Coleura seychellensis Seychelles sheath-tailed bat bat <100 mature individuals (est 2008) Habitat degradation and predation by invasive speciesRemoval of invasive vegetation and control of introduced predators, coupled with legal protection of habitat and roosting sites
Cryptomyces maximus fungus Unknown (declining) Limited availability of habitatcontinue protection of current populations and habitat regeneration projects
Cryptotis nelsoni Nelson’s small-eared shrew shrew Unknown (declining) habitat loss due to logging cattle grazing, fire and agriculture
Cyclura collei Jamaican iguana iguana Unknown (declining) Predation by introduced species and habitat destructionTranslocation to predator-free islands and control of deforestation development of legislation that will facilitate the protection of the Ironwood Forests
Dendrophylax fawcettii Cayman islands ghost orchid orchid Unknown (declining) Habitat destruction due to infrastructure developmentDevelopment of legislation that will facilitate the protection of the Ironwood Forests
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Sumatran rhino rhino <250 individuals Hunting for horn -used in traditional medicineExpansion and reinforcement of anti-poaching programmes and continuation of captive breeding efforts
Diomedea amsterdamensis Amsterdam Island albatross bird 100 mature individuals disease and incidental capture in long-line fishing operationsPrevention of the spread of disease and promotion of best-practice measures in all fisheries within the species range
Diospyros katendei tree 20 individuals, one population High pressure from communities for agricultural activity, illegal tree felling, habitat degradation due to alluvial gold digging and small populationEnforcement of legal protection of area, field surveys for further search and ex situ conservation in arboreta / botanic gardens
Dipterocarpus lamellatus dipterocarp (tree) 12 individuals Habitat loss and degradation due to logging of lowland forest and creation of industrial plantationsRestoration of Sianggau Forest Reserve and re-introduction of species to previous range
Discoglossus nigriventer Hula painted frog frog Unknown (recent rediscovery in 2011) Predation by birds and range restriction due to habitat destructionrestoration of habitat
Discorea strydomiana Wild Yam yam 200 individuals Collection for medicinal useDevelop strategy for sustainable use and establish ex situ populations
Dombeya mauritiana flowering plant Unknown (declining) Habitat degradation and destruction due to encroachment by alien invasive plant species and cannabis cultivationControl of invasive plant species, habitat protection and re-introduction of propagated individuals
Elaeocarpus bojeri flowering plant <10 individuals Small population and degraded habitatUnknown – trees are currently being closely monitored to determine level of threat and how these should be addressed
Eleutherodactylus glandulifer La Hotte Glanded Frog frog Unknown (declining) Habitat destruction due to charcoal production and slash-and-burn agricultureHabitat protection
Eleutherodactylus thorectes Macaya Breast-spot frog frog Unknown Habitat destruction due to charcoal production and slash-and-burn agriculture Protection of habitat
Eriosyce chilensis Chilenito cactus <500 individuals Collection of flowering individualsProtection of plants through construction of a fence and signage alerting people to threatened status
Erythrina schliebenii coral tree flowering tree < 50 individuals Limited habitat and small population size increasing vulnerability to stochastic eventsComplete establishment of Forest Reserves and continue propagation efforts, ex situ conservation
Euphorbia tanaensis semi-deciduous tree 4 mature individuals Illegal logging and habitat degradation due to agricultural expansion and infrastructure development Enforcement of legal protection in the Witu Forest Reserve, which has diminished due to civil insecurity
Eurynorhynchus pygmeus Spoon-billed sandpiper bird < 100 breeding pairs Trapping on wintering grounds and land reclamation.Maintenance of critical intertidal staging posts and reducing trapping on wintering grounds.
Ficus katendei tree (ficus) < 50 mature individuals Agricultural activity, illegal tree felling and habitat degradation due to alluvial gold diggingex-situ conservation in arboreta / botanic gardens; enforcement of protection to contain encroachment and habitat degradation; community development programmes in areas adjacent to the reserve
Geronticus eremita Northern Bald Ibis bird 200-249 mature individuals Habitat degradation and destruction, and huntingProtection of key breeding and roosting sites
Gigasiphon macrosiphon flowering tree 33 mature individuals Timber extraction and habitat degradation due to agricultural encroachment and development, seed predation by wild pigsEnforcement of protection in reserves and establishment of management plan to mitigate effects of water loss from hydroelectricity developments
Gocea ohridana mollusc Unknown (declining) Habitat degradation due to increasing pollution levels, off-take of water and sedimentation eventsImplement transboundary agreements to improve habitat management
Heleophryne rosei Table Mountain ghost frog frog Unknown (declining) Habitat degradation due to invasive plants and water abstractionProtection of habitat, continued implementation of management plans and integration of activities between sites
Hemicycla paeteliana mollusc Unknown (declining) Habitat destruction due to overgrazing and trampling by goats and touristsConservation of habitat and control of goats, and limiting recreational access to area by tourists
Heteromirafra sidamoensis Liben Lark bird 90- 256 individuals Habitat loss and degradation due to agricultural expansion, over-grazing and fire suppressionRestoration of grasslands, including establishing sustainable land management practices, clearing scrub and reinstating fire regime
Hibiscadelphus woodii hibiscus Unknown Habitat degradation due to feral ungulates and invasive introduced plant speciesSurvey the extremely steep terrain for additional individuals. Control of invasive species in the remaining suitable habitat so that species can be reintroduced if more individuals are located
Hucho perryi (Parahucho perryi) Sakhalin taimen salmonid Unknown (declining) Overfishing (sport fishing and commercial bycatch) and habitat loss from damming, agriculture and other land use practices.Expansion of conservation protection in rivers in Russia and Japan and enforcement of fishing regulations
Johora singaporensis Singapore Freshwater Crab crab Unknown Habitat degradation – reduction in water quality and quantityProtection of remaining habitat and establishment of ex-situ populations
Lathyrus belinensis sweet-pea <1,000 (2010 est) Habitat destruction due to urbanisation, over-grazing, conifer planting and road widening Habitat protection, control of grazing, halt conifer planting and periodic sampling for ex situ seed conservation
Leiopelma archeyi Archey’s frog frog unknown but declining Chytridiomycosis and predation by invasive speciesContinuation of current conservation efforts
Lithobates sevosus Dusky gopher frog frog 60-100 individuals (est 2003) Fungal disease and habitat limitation due to climate change and land-use changesProtection of habitat and management of population to prevent spread of disease
Lophura edwardsi Edward’s pheasant bird Unknown hunting and habitat lossEffective law enforcement, habitat restoration and development of a captive breeding programme
Magnolia wolfii magnolia Unknown (declining) Isolation of species and low regeneration ratesProtection of remaining population and exploration of potential for ex-situ conservation
Margaritifera marocana mussel <250 individuals (2010 est) Habitat degradation and disturbance due to pollution and development Habitat protection to mitigate effects of construction of hydroelectricity schemes and agricultural abstraction
Moominia willii mollusc < 500 individuals Invasive species and climate changeProtection of habitat and control of invasive species
Natalus primus Cuban greater funnel eared bat bat <100 individuals (est 2005) habitat loss and human disturbanceprotection of cueva la barca and its surrounds
Nepenthes attenboroughii Attenborough’s Pitcher Plant carnivorous plant Unknown PoachingCreation of a protected area and enforcement of current legal protection
Neurergus kaiseri Luristan newt newt <1000 mature individuals Illegal collection for pet tradeEnforcement of protection
Nomascus hainanus Hainan Gibbon primate < 20 individuals huntinggun confiscation in the area of the Bawangling population and habitat protection
Oreocnemis phoenix Mulanje Red Damsel butterfly Unknown (declining) Habitat destruction and degradation due to drainage, agricultural expansion and exploitation of forestEnforcement of habitat protection
Pangasius sanitwongsei Pangasid catfish freshwater fish Unknown (declining) Overfishing and collection for aquarium tradeProtection from overfishing and collection
Parides burchellanus butterfly < 100 individuals Habitat degrdation due to pressure from human populations and range restrictionProtection of galley forest habitat
Phocoena sinus Vaquita porpoise <200 individuals and declining Incidental capture in gillnetsBan on use of gillnets throughout the species’ range
Picea neoveitchii conifer Unknown (declining) Forest destruction “Ex-situ conservation and re-introduction; establishment of protected areas”
Pinus squamata Qiaojia Pine Conifer < 25 mature individuals Limited distribution and small population size Ex-situ conservation and re-introduction; establishment of protected areas
Poecilotheria metallica Peacock Parachute Spider spider Habitat loss and degradation as a result of deforestation, firewood collection and civil unrestHabitat protection, awareness at community level, inclusion in the national Wildlife Protection Act and national and international trade legislation
Pomarea whitneyi Fatuhiva monarch butterfly 50 individuals Predation by introduced species – Rattus rattus and feral catsIncrease control of introduced species and consider translocation, either to another island or by creating another, larger controlled area in an accessible part of Fatu Hiva
Pristis pristis Common Sawfish sawfish Unknown (declining) Exploitation – has removed the species from 95% of its historical rangeFurther research required to understand current distribution and threats and ways of managing those
Prolemur simus Greater bamboo lemur primate 100-160 individuals Habitat destruction due to slash-and-burn agriculture, mining and illegal loggingHabitat protection and reforestation in the Ivato and Karlanaga regions
Propithecus candidus Silky Sifaka primate 100 -1,000 individuals Hunting and habitat disturbanceContinuation and expansion of efforts to end hunting and establishment of protected areas
Psammobates geometricus Geometric tortoise tortoise Unknown Habitat destruction and degradation, and predationEstablishment of additional reserves and management of fire regimes
Pseudoryx nghetinhensis Saola saola (bovid affinities) Unknown Hunting and habitat destructionIncrease enforcement efforts and habitat protection
Psiadia cataractae flowering plant Unknown Habitat degradation and destruction due to development project and alien invasive plant species Effective protection of the area, continuous and effective control of invasive alien plants particularly grasses and replanting of hardened nursery grown plants
Psorodonotus ebneri Beydaglari Bush-cricket cricket Unknown climate change, habitat loss Development of a bioacoustic monitoring scheme and strategic conservation action plan, establishment of a nature reserve, implementation of habitat management scheme, and research on population size, trends, distribution, and ecology
Rafetus swinhoei Red River giant softshell turtle turtle 4 known individuals Hunting for consumption and habitat destruction and degradation as a result of wetland destruction and pollutionEducation and awareness programmes, and captive breeding
Rhinoceros sondaicus Javan rhino rhino < 100 individuals Hunting for traditional medicine and small population sizeEnforcement of protection laws and possible establishment of a captive breeding programme
Rhinopithecus avunculus Tonkin snub-nosed monkey primate < 200 individuals habitat loss and hunting. Known from only a few records in small area of habitat ( less than 10km2), Establishment of a conservation area for Khau Ca Conservation area in Ha Giang province and increase law enforcement to reduce hunting pressure
Rhizanthella gardneri West Australian underground Orchid orchid < 100 individuals Land clearance for agriculture (96% habitat cleared to date), climate change and salinisationIn-situ protection of the two supporting organisms and protection of seed stocks and the fungus partner in the seed bank
Rhynchocyon spp. Boni Giant Sengi sengi Unknown (declining) Highly restricted habitat and distribution, security issues, oil development in area with associated increase in human population in areaFormal protection of Boni-Dodori forest and finalisation of formal identification
Risiocnemis seidenschwarzi Cebu frill-wing damsel-fly Unknown (declining) Habitat degradation and destruction.Designation of area as ‘Critical Habitat’ – restricting human access to the areas
Rosa arabica flowering tree Unknown (declining) Domestic animals grazing, climate change and drought, medicinal plant collection and restricted range Protection of individuals from exploitation
Salanoia durrelli Durrell’s Vontsira vontsira (small carnivore) Unknown (declining) Habitat lossImproved management for Lake Alaotra protected area
Santamartamys rufodorsalis Red-crested tree rat rat Unknown Habitat loss through urban development and coffee cultivationSurveys to map species range, continued habitat protection at known site of occurence
Scaturiginichthys vermeilipinnis Red-finned blue eye freshwater fish 2,000 – 4,000 individuals Predation by introduced speciesControl of the invasive species Gambusia holbrooki, and reintroduction of S.vermeilipinnis
Squatina squatina Angel shark shark Unknown (declining) Benthic trawlingProtection of Canary Islands habitat and nearby continental shelf habitats from trawling
Sterna bernsteini Chinese crested tern bird < 50 mature individuals Egg collection and habitat destructionProtect breeding sites, strengthen legal protection status and raise awareness at breeding colonies
Syngnathus watermeyeri Estuarine Pipefish (River Pipefish) pipefish Unknown (declining) Construction of dams altering river flows and flood events into estuariesEstablishment of a freshwater ‘reserve’, pollution control and implementation of water use allocations
Tahina spectabilis Suicide Palm palm 90 individuals Habitat loss due to fires, logging and agricultural developmentsEstablishment of a protected area and development of a management plan
Telmatobufo bullocki Bullock’s false toad toad unknown Habita destruction as a result of energy developmentHalting development of the hydo-electricity scheme and protecting habitat
Tokudaia muenninki Okinawa Spiny Rat rat unknown (declining) Habtiat loss and predation by feral catsSurveys to map species range, protection of remaining habitat and feral cat control programme
Trigonostigma somphongsi Somphongs’s rasbora freshwater fish Unknown (declining) Habitat loss and degradation from farmland conversion and urbanizationWetland restoration
Valencia letourneuxi freshwater fish Unknown (declining) Habitat destruction, water abstraction and agressive interaction with GambusiaProtection of habitat and control of Gambusia
Voanioala gerardii Forest Coconut palm < 10 individuals Harvesting for consumption of palm heart and deforestationProtection of individuals and habitat coupled with public awareness campaigns
Zaglossus attenboroughi Attenborough’s Echidna echidna Unknown Habitat modification and degradation due to logging, agricultural encroachment shifting cultivation and hunting by local peopleEnhance awareness and cultural significance of the species and establish sustainable management practices and conduct additional surveys