Tag Archive: Easter Island


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 Independent

Zika virus: Health alerts in South America and Caribbean following fears illness may cause birth deformities

Doctors believe the illness may be linked to a rise in cases of microcephaly in infants
  • Alexandra Sims
  • Thursday 19 November 2015 Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease similar to dengue fever VALERY HACHE/AFP/Getty Images

 

A virus believed to cause under-developed brains and skulls in newborn babies has sparked a public health emergency in Brazil and the Caribbean.

The Zika virus, a mosquito-borne disease similar to dengue fever, was first identified on Easter Island, Chile in February last year and has since spread to Brazil, Columbia and the Caribbean.

On Monday, the Caribbean Public Health Agency confirmed five cases of the Zika virus in a territory of the Caribbean Community, according to Liverostrum News Agency.

The territory where the cases were confirmed has not been revealed.

Reports say the disease surveillance system operated by one of the community’s members, Grenada, has since been heightened and health officials are on alert.

 

Read More Here

Earth Watch Report  –  Earthquakes

 photo EasterIslandRegion-50MagEQ_zpsa5514a83.jpg

M5.0 – Easter Island region

 2013-08-03 02:34:26 UTC

Earthquake location 25.050°S, 111.921°W

Event Time

  1. 2013-08-03 02:34:26 UTC
  2. 2013-08-02 19:34:26 UTC-07:00 at epicenter
  3. 2013-08-02 21:34:26 UTC-05:00 system time

Location

25.050°S 111.921°W depth=10.0km (6.2mi)

Nearby Cities

  1. 340km (211mi) NW of Hanga Roa, Chile
  2. 3867km (2403mi) W of Lebu, Chile
  3. 3889km (2417mi) W of Arauco, Chile
  4. 3890km (2417mi) W of Curanilahue, Chile
  5. 1833km (1139mi) E of Adamstown, Pitcairn

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Earthquakes

USGS     Southern California
Apr 29 23:37 PM
2.6     5.3     MAP

GEOFON     Kermadec Islands, New Zealand
Apr 29 23:02 PM
4.8     0.0     MAP

GEOFON     Fox Islands, Aleutian Islands
Apr 29 22:54 PM
4.5     0.0     MAP

USGS     Southern California
Apr 29 22:53 PM
2.8     6.9     MAP

EMSC     Eastern Turkey
Apr 29 22:51 PM
2.4     6.0     MAP

GEOFON     Sumbawa Region, Indonesia
Apr 29 22:50 PM
4.7     0.0     MAP

EMSC     Eastern Turkey
Apr 29 22:39 PM
2.6     7.0     MAP

USGS     Kermadec Islands, New Zealand
Apr 29 22:35 PM
4.9     48.2     MAP

EMSC     Kermadec Islands, New Zealand
Apr 29 22:35 PM
4.8     40.0     MAP

EMSC     Fyr Of Macedonia
Apr 29 22:26 PM
2.6     1.0     MAP

USGS     Fox Islands, Aleutian Islands, Alaska
Apr 29 22:00 PM
4.5     52.6     MAP

EMSC     Fox Islands, Aleutian Islands
Apr 29 22:00 PM
4.5     49.0     MAP

GEONET     Canterbury
Apr 29 21:16 PM
3.1     5.0     MAP

GEONET     Otago    , New Zealand
Apr 29 21:14 PM
4.4     5.0     MAP

USGS     Southern Alaska
Apr 29 20:48 PM
3.2     95.8     MAP

USGS     Central Alaska
Apr 29 20:46 PM
2.5     83.6     MAP

EMSC     Carlsberg Ridge
Apr 29 20:07 PM
4.7     10.0     MAP

EMSC     Dodecanese Islands, Greece
Apr 29 19:57 PM
2.9     5.0     MAP

EMSC     Crete, Greece
Apr 29 19:44 PM
3.0     5.0     MAP

EMSC     Eastern Turkey
Apr 29 19:37 PM
2.6     5.0     MAP

EMSC     Southern Greece
Apr 29 19:21 PM
2.6     29.0     MAP

EMSC     Iran-iraq Border Region
Apr 29 19:03 PM
3.8     5.0     MAP

EMSC     Greece
Apr 29 18:50 PM
2.5     5.0     MAP

EMSC     Turkey-iran Border Region
Apr 29 18:31 PM
2.6     5.0     MAP

EMSC     Turkey-iran Border Region
Apr 29 18:16 PM
2.4     5.0     MAP

USGS     Island Of Hawaii, Hawaii
Apr 29 17:49 PM
2.7     8.6     MAP

EMSC     Off East Coast Of Honshu, Japan
Apr 29 17:28 PM
4.6     10.0     MAP

USGS     Off The East Coast Of Honshu, Japan
Apr 29 17:28 PM
4.5     37.3     MAP

GEOFON     Off East Coast Of Honshu, Japan
Apr 29 17:28 PM
4.5     0.0     MAP

EMSC     Western Turkey
Apr 29 16:57 PM
2.6     5.0     MAP

EMSC     Eastern Turkey
Apr 29 16:52 PM
2.9     5.0     MAP

EMSC     Eastern Turkey
Apr 29 16:15 PM
2.8     5.0     MAP

USGS     Long Valley Area, California
Apr 29 16:05 PM
2.6     4.6     MAP

EMSC     Northern Italy
Apr 29 16:01 PM
2.4     9.0     MAP

EMSC     Volcano Islands, Japan Region
Apr 29 15:45 PM
4.9     47.0     MAP

USGS     Volcano Islands, Japan Region
Apr 29 15:45 PM
4.9     41.7     MAP

GEOFON     Volcano Islands, Japan Region
Apr 29 15:45 PM
4.9     0.0     MAP

EMSC     Near East Coast Of Honshu, Japan
Apr 29 15:02 PM
5.4     10.0     MAP

USGS     Near The East Coast Of Honshu, Japan
Apr 29 15:02 PM
5.8     10.0     MAP

GEOFON     Near East Coast Of Honshu, Japan
Apr 29 15:02 PM
5.3     0.0     MAP

GEOFON     Carlsberg Ridge
Apr 29 13:54 PM
4.7     0.0     MAP

EMSC     Greece
Apr 29 13:23 PM
2.7     10.0     MAP

EMSC     Western Turkey
Apr 29 13:23 PM
2.6     16.0     MAP

EMSC     Western Turkey
Apr 29 12:56 PM
2.5     12.0     MAP

USGS     San Francisco Bay Area, California
Apr 29 12:53 PM
2.7     10.6     MAP

EMSC     Albania
Apr 29 12:50 PM
2.7     25.0     MAP

GEOFON     South Of Fiji Islands
Apr 29 12:46 PM
4.7     0.0     MAP

USGS     South Of The Fiji Islands
Apr 29 12:46 PM
4.6     212.1     MAP

EMSC     South Of Fiji Islands
Apr 29 12:46 PM
4.6     220.0     MAP

EMSC     Eastern Honshu, Japan
Apr 29 12:16 PM
4.6     48.0     MAP

GEOFON     Eastern Honshu, Japan
Apr 29 12:16 PM
4.8     0.0     MAP

USGS     Near The East Coast Of Honshu, Japan
Apr 29 12:16 PM
4.6     61.7     MAP

EMSC     Southern Iran
Apr 29 11:58 AM
4.4     103.0     MAP

USGS     Southern Iran
Apr 29 11:58 AM
4.5     97.8     MAP

GEOFON     Southern Iran
Apr 29 11:58 AM
4.5     0.0     MAP

GEOFON     North Indian Ocean
Apr 29 11:34 AM

EMSC     Azores Islands, Portugal
Apr 29 11:15 AM
3.1     1.0     MAP

USGS     Southern Alaska
Apr 29 10:57 AM
3.2     5.4     MAP

EMSC     Western Turkey
Apr 29 10:46 AM
2.8     14.0     MAP

USGS     Near The East Coast Of Honshu, Japan
Apr 29 10:28 AM
5.8     39.9     MAP

EMSC     Near East Coast Of Honshu, Japan
Apr 29 10:28 AM
5.8     40.0     MAP

GEOFON     Near East Coast Of Honshu, Japan
Apr 29 10:28 AM
5.8     0.0     MAP

GEONET     Gisborne   , New Zealand
Apr 29 10:05 AM
3.8     25.0     MAP

EMSC     Western Turkey
Apr 29 10:04 AM
3.0     7.0     MAP

EMSC     Eastern Turkey
Apr 29 09:51 AM
2.6     18.0     MAP

EMSC     Western Turkey
Apr 29 09:40 AM
3.0     5.0     MAP

EMSC     Western Turkey
Apr 29 09:03 AM
2.7     3.0     MAP

USGS     South Of Tonga
Apr 29 09:01 AM
4.5     35.8     MAP

EMSC     South Of Tonga
Apr 29 09:01 AM
4.5     36.0     MAP

EMSC     France
Apr 29 08:59 AM
2.5     2.0     MAP

USGS     Off The West Coast Of Northern Sumatra
Apr 29 08:09 AM
5.4     23.3     MAP

EMSC     Off W Coast Of Northern Sumatra
Apr 29 08:09 AM
5.7     10.0     MAP

GEOFON     Off West Coast Of Northern Sumatra
Apr 29 08:09 AM
5.7     0.0     MAP

EMSC     Dodecanese Islands, Greece
Apr 29 07:18 AM
3.2     10.0     MAP

USGS     Guerrero, Mexico
Apr 29 07:17 AM
4.5     12.8     MAP

EMSC     Guerrero, Mexico
Apr 29 07:17 AM
4.6     15.0     MAP

GEOFON     Near Coast Of Guerrero, Mexico
Apr 29 07:17 AM
4.5     0.0     MAP

USGS     Southeast Of Easter Island
Apr 29 06:52 AM
4.8     10.0     MAP

EMSC     Southeast Of Easter Island
Apr 29 06:52 AM
4.7     10.0     MAP

GEOFON     Southeast Of Easter Island
Apr 29 06:52 AM
4.8     0.0     MAP

EMSC     Western Turkey
Apr 29 06:25 AM
2.9     6.0     MAP

GEOFON     Northern Chile
Apr 29 06:22 AM
4.3     0.0     MAP

USGS     Tarapaca, Chile
Apr 29 06:22 AM
4.1     114.8     MAP

EMSC     Tarapaca, Chile
Apr 29 06:22 AM
4.1     113.0     MAP

EMSC     Albania
Apr 29 05:54 AM
2.8     2.0     MAP

EMSC     Strait Of Gibraltar
Apr 29 05:41 AM
2.7     60.0     MAP

EMSC     Central Turkey
Apr 29 05:32 AM
2.5     9.0     MAP

GEOFON     Germany
Apr 29 05:28 AM
2.6     0.0     MAP

EMSC     Vancouver Island, Canada Region
Apr 29 05:12 AM
3.8     10.0     MAP

USGS     Vancouver Island, Canada Region
Apr 29 05:12 AM
3.8     10.0     MAP

GEOFON     Near Coast Of Oaxaca, Mexico
Apr 29 04:39 AM
4.5     0.0     MAP

EMSC     Off Coast Of Oaxaca, Mexico
Apr 29 04:39 AM
4.5     40.0     MAP

USGS     Off The Coast Of Oaxaca, Mexico
Apr 29 04:39 AM
4.4     24.8     MAP

USGS     Puerto Rico
Apr 29 04:07 AM
2.7     23.7     MAP

EMSC     Off W Coast Of Northern Sumatra
Apr 29 03:52 AM
5.0     10.0     MAP

GEOFON     Off West Coast Of Northern Sumatra
Apr 29 03:52 AM
5.2     0.0     MAP

USGS     Off The West Coast Of Northern Sumatra
Apr 29 03:52 AM
4.7     15.0     MAP

EMSC     Southwestern Siberia, Russia
Apr 29 03:13 AM
4.1     10.0     MAP

EMSC     Central Turkey
Apr 29 03:13 AM
2.7     31.0     MAP

USGS     Puerto Rico Region
Apr 29 03:09 AM
3.1     32.5     MAP

EMSC     Western Turkey
Apr 29 03:03 AM
2.5     5.0     MAP

EMSC     Off W Coast Of Northern Sumatra
Apr 29 03:00 AM
5.0     40.0     MAP

GEOFON     Off West Coast Of Northern Sumatra
Apr 29 03:00 AM
5.1     0.0     MAP

USGS     Off The West Coast Of Northern Sumatra
Apr 29 03:00 AM
4.9     15.2     MAP

USGS     Puerto Rico Region
Apr 29 02:55 AM
3.3     46.2     MAP

EMSC     Off W Coast Of Northern Sumatra
Apr 29 02:14 AM
4.8     51.0     MAP

GEOFON     North Indian Ocean
Apr 29 02:13 AM
5.0     0.0     MAP

USGS     North Indian Ocean
Apr 29 02:13 AM
4.6     14.9     MAP

USGS     Papua, Indonesia
Apr 29 02:11 AM
4.5     15.2     MAP

EMSC     Papua, Indonesia
Apr 29 02:11 AM
4.5     15.0     MAP

EMSC     Southern Greece

 Apr 29 01:58 AM

 2.5     5.0     MAP

EMSC     Papua, Indonesia
Apr 29 01:57 AM
5.2     40.0     MAP

GEOFON     Irian Jaya, Indonesia
Apr 29 01:57 AM
5.1     0.0     MAP

USGS     Papua, Indonesia
Apr 29 01:57 AM
5.2     15.2     MAP

USGS     North Of Honduras
Apr 29 01:55 AM
4.4     18.9     MAP

EMSC     North Of Honduras
Apr 29 01:55 AM
4.4     19.0     MAP

EMSC     Western Turkey
Apr 29 01:42 AM
2.9     7.0     MAP

EMSC     Greece
Apr 29 01:04 AM
3.1     10.0     MAP

EMSC     Near Coast Of Ecuador
Apr 29 00:43 AM
4.7     115.0     MAP

USGS     Near The Coast Of Ecuador
Apr 29 00:43 AM
4.7     115.3     MAP

USGS     Offshore Northern California
Apr 29 00:27 AM
2.5     16.7     MAP

sources:  USGSEMSCGFZGEONET

Earthquakes

Published on Apr 28, 2012 by

EARTHQUAKE/SPACEWEATHER/PLANETARY GEOMETRY DATASET:
http://www.4shared.com/office/jQf-jJVD/Earthquakes_Planetary_Bodies_S.html?
TRY THIS IF THAT FIRST LINK BUGS YOU OUT: http://www.mediafire.com/view/?8yd7ddtd2rd7ffb
Sources Used to Compile Data Set: USGS, SDO, SOHO, JPL, Stellarium, fourmilab [Google them if you don’t know.]

PLANETARY GEOMETRY:
Bigbytes – http://dcsymbols.com/future/quepaso.htm
dcsymbols – http://www.youtube.com/user/dcsymbols

EARTH’s ANGULAR VELOCITY & WEATHER CORRELATION
John Thomas Bryant Jr. – http://www.youtube.com/user/astrotometry

SOLAR/SEISMIC CONNECTION:
1) Solar Activity as a Trigger Mechanism For Earthquakes. Simpson, John F. University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, Revised December 16, 1967
[In my opinion, only valuable for the theorized trigger mechanism]
2) Long-Period Trends in Global Seismic and Geomagnetic Activity and their Relation to Solar Activity. S. Odintsov, K. Boyarchuk, K. Georgieva, B. Kirov, D. Atanasov. Russian Academy of Sciences, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia University, Bulgaria. Accepted March 18, 2005.
3) Does the Solar Cycle Modulate Seismic and Volcanic Activty? A. Mazzarella, A. Palumbo. University of Naples, Italy. Accepted April 10, 1989.

SOLAR/ATMOSPHERIC CONNECTION:
Physical Mechanism of the Action of Solar Activty and other Geophysical Factors on the State of the Lower Atmosphere, meteorological parameters, and Climate. M. I. Pudovkin, O. M. Raspoov. Phys.-Usp. 36 644 (http://iopscience.iop.org/1063-7869/36/7/A09). 1993.

CHINA QUAKE – 5/12/2008:
Formation Mechanism of Great Positive TEC Disturbances Prior to Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12, 2008. M. V. Klimenko, V. V. Klimenko, I. E. Zakharenkova, S.A. Pulinets, B. Zhao, M. N. Tsidilina. West Dept. of N.V. Pushkov, Kaliningrad State Technical University, Fedorov Institute of Applied geophysics, IKI (Moscow), Beijing National Observatory of Space Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Accepted March 31, 2011

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Volcanic Activity

Nicaragua Monitors Microseismic Activity Increase in Volcano

Imagen activaManagua, Apr 29 (Prensa Latina) Nicaraguan Experts reported Sunday more seismic activity at Masaya volcano, about 20 kilometers south of Managua, with an increase in expulsions of sulfur gases, which keeps the disaster warning system in high alert.According to the report, a crack in the main crater causes higher emissions and a sound similar to a jet engine.

Specialists of the National System for Prevention, Mitigation and Attention to Disasters (SINAPRED) and the Nicaraguan Institute of Territorial Studies (INETER), told the press that they detected this unusual behavior several days ago, but for now there is no reason for alarm.

The INETER geophysics director, Angelica Munoz, told the site El 19 Digital they monitor Masayaâ�Ös situation closely because of rising emissions and temperature above the normal range.

Technical teams assess the seismic tremor, but there is no emergency declared and the gates of Masaya Volcano National Park remain open to the public, said the director of INETER, Jorge Castro, and the executive secretary of SINAPRED, Guillermo Gonzalez.

sgl/ isa/rmh/mjm

Modificado el ( domingo, 29 de abril de 2012 )

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Extreme Temperatures/ Weather

Deadly tent collapse due to high winds

Moscow swelters in record heat

by Staff Writers
Moscow (AFP) April 29, 2012


6.4-magnitude quake strikes off Tonga: USGS
Sydney (AFP) April 28, 2012 – A strong 6.4-magnitude earthquake struck off the Pacific nation of Tonga on Saturday, US seismologists said, but there were no immediate reports of damage and no tsunami warning was issued.The quake happened at 11:08 PM (1008 GMT) 78 kilometres (49 miles) from the town of Neiafu, on the south coast of the island Vava’u, at a depth of about 130 kilometres (80 miles), the US Geological Survey (USGS) said.The epicentre of the tremor was 280 kilometres (173 miles) north of the capital Nuku’alofa.The Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre said in a statement that the quake did not generate a tsunami. The USGS had initially reported it as a 6.7-magnitude quake.

Tonga, almost 2,000 kilometres (1,240 miles) northeast of New Zealand, lies on the so-called Pacific “Ring of Fire”, where continental plates collide causing frequent seismic activity.

 

Moscow sweltered in unseasonable heat on Sunday, with temperatures of nearly 29 degrees Celsius (84.2 Fahrenheit), a record for April since data collection began 130 years ago, authorities said.

“At 4:00 p.m. (1200 GMT), the temperature reached 28.6 degrees Celsius, an absolute record for the month of April,” an official from the Russian capital’s weather service told the Interfax news agency.

“The previous record for the month goes back to April 24, 1950, with 28 degrees,” he added.

The mercury had already climbed to 26.3 degrees on Saturday.

Several central and eastern European countries recorded unseasonably high temperatures on Saturday, with a record 32 degrees recorded in northern Austria.

Central, eastern Europe swelter in record heat
Vienna (AFP) April 28, 2012 – Summer came early to central and eastern Europe as unseasonally high temperatures were recorded Saturday in several parts of Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic.

Temperatures “are exceptionally mild for April”, Austria’s ZAMG meteorological centre said, reporting a record 32 Celsius (90 Fahrenheit) in the northern region of Lower Austria.

The centre said the main reason for the summer weather gracing the region was a strong southern wind from Africa’s Sahara desert.

Temperatures hovering around 28 Celsius (82 Fahrenheit) in Vienna drew large crowds to the banks of the Danube while Germany’s Bild carried frontpage pictures of Berlin residents sunbathing in 30 degrees.

Prague experienced its hottest April 28 in 212 years, with mercury hitting 27.7 Celsius (82 Fahrenheit) while unusually high temperatures were also recorded in Poland and Slovakia.

Related Links
Weather News at TerraDaily.com

  Short Time Event(s)

  29.04.2012 Extreme Weather Bangladesh Tripura, Panisagar [Dharmanagar town area] Damage level Details

Extreme Weather in Bangladesh on Sunday, 29 April, 2012 at 18:32 (06:32 PM) UTC.

Description
At least three persons including a 76-year-old man was killed and 500 houses collapsed when rain storms swept different parts of Tripura, official sources said on Sunday.A 76-year-old farmer died in Dharmanagar town area and a 30-year-old man died in Panisagar in northern Tripura district when lightning struck them on Saturday, police said.A nine-year-old boy died of electrocution when he came in contact of live wire at Sonamura in Sipahijala district, police said.The pre-monsoon rain accompanied by hailstorm swept different parts of the state collapsing at least 500 houses, uprooting many trees and electric posts.Security forces and civil defence volunteers were engaged in distribution of relief and immediate relieves were given to the next of keens of the deceased, official sources said.At least 12 persons had died within this month due to lightning and electrocution.

Gale Warning

CAPE FLATTERY TO CAPE LOOKOUT
POINT ST GEORGE TO POINT ARENA
POINT ARENA TO POINT CONCEPTION

Hard Freeze Warning

BINGHAMTON NY
BUFFALO NY

Freeze Warning

ALBANY NY
NEW YORK NY
BUFFALO NY
TAUNTON MA
MOUNT HOLLY NJ
BURLINGTON VT
STATE COLLEGE PA

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Storms, Flooding

Severe Thunderstorm Watch

NORMAN OK
AMARILLO TX

Flash Flood Watch

ST LOUIS MO
SPRINGFIELD MO

Flood Warning

NORMAN OK
TULSA OK
SPRINGFIELD MO
KANSAS CITY/PLEASANT HILL MO
SPOKANE, WA
WICHITA KS
ST LOUIS MO
BOISE ID
 FAIRBANKS AK

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Radiation/Biological Hazard

Poisonous Cloud Could Be Heading Towards The United States
How Dangerous Is It?
28 April, 2012 MessageToEagle.com – A highly poisonous cloud depleted with uranium and radioactive material is heading towards the United States

There are many conflicting reports and it remains unclear just how dangerous the cloud is.

On April 22, at 2:a5 am, the Mitsui petrochemical plant exploded in the town Wagi Yamaguchi, Japan. One worker, and 11 people were injured.

In their press release, the plant owner Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. (Toshikazu Tanaka, President & CEO) declared that “causes of the accident are under investigation by authorities.”

Read Full Article Here

4/27/2012 — Cloud of depleted URANIUM heading towards Hawaii and West Coast?!


full website post here plus links to monitor radiation detection at several world wide locations

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Climate Change

“Warming hole” delayed climate change over eastern United States

by Staff Writers
Boston MA (SPX) Apr 30, 2012


Observed change in surface air temperature between 1930 and 1990. Observations are from the NASA GISS Surface Temperature Analysis. Image courtesy of Eric Leibensperger.

Climate scientists at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have discovered that particulate pollution in the late 20th century created a “warming hole” over the eastern United States-that is, a cold patch where the effects of global warming were temporarily obscured.

While greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane warm the Earth’s surface, tiny particles in the air can have the reverse effect on regional scales.

“What we’ve shown is that particulate pollution over the eastern United States has delayed the warming that we would expect to see from increasing greenhouse gases,” says lead author Eric Leibensperger (Ph.D. ’11), who completed the work as a graduate student in applied physics at SEAS.

“For the sake of protecting human health and reducing acid rain, we’ve now cut the emissions that lead to particulate pollution,” he adds, “but these cuts have caused the greenhouse warming in this region to ramp up to match the global trend.”

At this point, most of the “catch-up” warming has already occurred.

The findings, published in the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, present a more complete picture of the processes that affect regional climate change. The work also carries significant implications for the future climate of industrial nations, like China, that have not yet implemented air quality regulations to the same extent as the United States.

Until the United States passed the Clean Air Act in 1970 and strengthened it in 1990, particulate pollution hung thick over the central and eastern states. Most of these particles in the atmosphere were made of sulfate, originating as sulfur emissions from coal-fired power plants. Compared to greenhouse gases, particulate pollution has a very short lifetime (about 1 week), so its distribution over the Earth is uneven.

“The primary driver of the warming hole is the aerosol pollution-these small particles,” says Leibensperger. “What they do is reflect incoming sunlight, so we see a cooling effect at the surface.”

This effect has been known for some time, but the new analysis demonstrates the strong impact that decreases in particulate pollution can have on regional climate.

The researchers found that interactions between clouds and particles amplified the cooling. Particles of pollution can act as nucleation sites for cloud droplets, which can in turn reflect even more sunlight than the particles would individually, leading to greater cooling at the surface.

The researchers’ analysis is based on a combination of two complex models of Earth systems. The pollution data comes from the GEOS-Chem model, which was first developed at Harvard and, through a series of many updates, has since become an international standard for modeling pollution over time. The climate data comes from the general circulation model developed by NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Both models are rooted in decades’ worth of observational data.

Since the early 20th century, global mean temperatures have risen-by approximately 0.8 degrees Celsius from 1906 to 2005-but in the U.S. “warming hole,” temperatures decreased by as much as 1 degree Celsius during the period 1930-1990. U.S. particulate pollution peaked in 1980 and has since been reduced by about half. By 2010 the average cooling effect over the East had fallen to just 0.3 degrees Celsius.

“Such a large fraction of the sulfate has already been removed that we don’t have much more warming coming along due to further controls on sulfur emissions in the future,” says principal investigator Daniel Jacob, the Vasco McCoy Family Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry and Environmental Engineering at SEAS.

Jacob is also a Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard and a faculty associate of the Harvard University Center for the Environment.

Besides confirming that particulate pollution plays a large role in affecting U.S. regional climate, the research emphasizes the importance of accounting for the climate impacts of particulates in future air quality policies.

“Something similar could happen in China, which is just beginning to tighten up its pollution standards,” says co-author Loretta J. Mickley, a Senior Research Fellow in atmospheric chemistry at SEAS. “China could see significant climate change due to declining levels of particulate pollutants.”

Sulfates are harmful to human health and can also cause acid rain, which damages ecosystems and erodes buildings.

“No one is suggesting that we should stop improving air quality, but it’s important to understand the consequences. Clearing the air could lead to regional warming,” Mickley says.

Leibensperger, Jacob, and Mickley were joined by co-authors Wei-Ting Chen and John H. Seinfeld (California Institute of Technology); Athanasios Nenes (Georgia Institute of Technology); Peter J. Adams (Carnegie Mellon University); David G. Streets (Argonne National Laboratory); Naresh Kumar (Electric Power Research Institute); and David Rind (NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies). The research was supported by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); neither EPRI nor the EPA has officially endorsed the results. The work also benefited from resources provided by Academic Computing Services at SEAS.

Related Links
Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Climate Science News – Modeling, Mitigation Adaptation

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Solar Activity

2MIN Apr29: World Update, Spaceweather

Published on Apr 29, 2012 by

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Space

Tiny ‘spherules’ reveal details about Earth’s asteroid impacts

by Staff Writers
West Lafayette, IN (SPX) Apr 27, 2012


Researchers are learning details about asteroid impacts going back to the Earth’s early history by using a new method for extracting precise information from tiny “spherules” embedded in layers of rock. The spherules were created when asteroids crashed into Earth, vaporizing rock that expanded as a giant vapor plume. Small droplets of molten rock in the plume condensed and solidified, falling back to the surface as a thin layer. This sample was found in Western Australia and formed 2.63 billion years ago in the aftermath of a large impact. Credit: Oberlin College photo/Bruce M. Simonson.

Researchers are learning details about asteroid impacts going back to the Earth’s early history by using a new method for extracting precise information from tiny “spherules” embedded in layers of rock.

The spherules were created when asteroids crashed into the Earth, vaporizing rock that expanded into space as a giant vapor plume. Small droplets of molten and vaporized rock in the plume condensed and solidified, falling back to Earth as a thin layer. The round or oblong particles were preserved in layers of rock, and now researchers have analyzed them to record precise information about asteroids impacting Earth from 3.5 billion to 35 million years ago.

“What we have done is provide the foundation for understanding how to interpret the layers in terms of the size and velocity of the asteroid that made them,” said Jay Melosh, an expert in impact cratering and a distinguished professor of earth and atmospheric sciences, physics and aerospace engineering at Purdue University.

Findings, which support a theory that the Earth endured an especially heavy period of asteroid bombardment early in its history, are detailed in a research paper appearing online in the journal Nature on Wednesday (April 25). The paper was written by Purdue physics graduate student Brandon Johnson and Melosh. The findings, based on geologic observations, support a theoretical study in a companion paper in Nature by researchers at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colo.

The period of heavy asteroid bombardment – from 4.2 to 3.5 billion years ago – is thought to have been influenced by changes in the early solar system that altered the trajectory of objects in an asteroid belt located between Mars and Jupiter, sending them on a collision course with Earth.

“That’s the postulate, and this is the first real solid evidence that it actually happened,” Melosh said.

“Some of the asteroids that we infer were about 40 kilometers in diameter, much larger than the one that killed off the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago that was about 12-15 kilometers. But when we looked at the number of impactors as a function of size, we got a curve that showed a lot more small objects than large ones, a pattern that matches exactly the distribution of sizes in the asteroid belt. For the first time we have a direct connection between the crater size distribution on the ancient Earth and the sizes of asteroids out in space.”

Because craters are difficult to study directly, impact history must be inferred either by observations of asteroids that periodically pass near the Earth or by studying craters on the moon. Now, the new technique using spherules offers a far more accurate alternative to chronicle asteroid impacts on Earth, Melosh said.

“We can look at these spherules, see how thick the layer is, how big the spherules are, and we can infer the size and velocity of the asteroid,” Melosh said. “We can go back to the earliest era in the history of the Earth and infer the population of asteroids impacting the planet.”

For asteroids larger than about 10 kilometers in diameter, the spherules are deposited in a global layer.

“Some of these impacts were several times larger than the Chicxulub impact that killed off the dinosaurs 65 million years ago,” Johnson said. “The impacts may have played a large role in the evolutional history of life. The large number of impacts may have helped simple life by introducing organics and other important materials at a time when life on Earth was just taking hold.”

A 40-kilometer asteroid would have wiped out everything on the Earth’s surface, whereas the one that struck 65 million years ago killed only land animals weighing more than around 20 kilograms.

“Impact craters are the most obvious indication of asteroid impacts, but craters on Earth are quickly obscured or destroyed by surface weathering and tectonic processes,” Johnson said. “However, the spherule layers, if preserved in the geologic record, provide information about an impact even when the source crater cannot be found.”

The Purdue researchers studied the spherules using computer models that harness mathematical equations developed originally to calculate the condensation of vapor.

“There have been some new wrinkles in vapor condensation modeling that motivated us to do this work, and we were the first to apply it to asteroid impacts,” Melosh said.

The spherules are about a millimeter in diameter.

The researchers also are studying a different type of artifact similar to spherules but found only near the original impact site. Whereas the globally distributed spherules come from the condensing vaporized rock, these “melt droplets” are from rock that’s been melted and not completely vaporized.

“Before this work, it was not possible to distinguish between these two types of formations,” Melosh said. “Nobody had established criteria for discriminating between them, and we’ve done that now.”

One of the authors of the Southwest Research Institute paper, David Minton, is now an assistant professor of earth and atmospheric sciences at Purdue.

Findings from the research may enable Melosh’s team to enhance an asteroid impact effects calculator he developed to estimate what would happen if asteroids of various sizes were to hit the Earth. The calculator, “Impact: Earth!” allows anyone to calculate potential comet or asteroid damage based on the object’s mass.

Related Links
Purdue University
Asteroid and Comet Impact Danger To Earth – News and Science

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